In the article author
basically talks about the situations where parties in negotiation have to face
different scenarios depending upon their strengths and weaknesses and authors have
come up with four principles required to do an effective negotiation. The authors
have also talked about three common obstacles to negotiation and in what ways the
parties can master these obstacles. The writers say that a good agreement is
one which is efficient and informed and which improves the parties’ relationship.
The primary aim is to try to improve relationships among parties by creating
the method to reach good agreements. The author has coined a word called positional
bargaining where each party opens with their position on an issue. The parties
after that bargain from their different opening positions to reach on a single position.
.This is an efficient means of reaching agreements and these agreements tends
to neglect the parties’ interest, encourage dogged determination and thereby
harm the parties’ relationship. Authors have stated four principles of
1) Separate the People
The author has
identified three sorts of problem in this case which are as follows:
a) Identifying the
differences on perception among the parties as each party needs to look at each
b) Emotions are the
second source of problem as people often react with anger or fear when they
feel their interest is getting threatened.
c) Communication is the
third important source of problem as the parties may not be listening to each
other but may in process of planning their own responses. Active listening is
required in these cases.
2) Focus on Interest
rather than positions
Parties which are good
should focus on interest rather than focusing on position of parties. The
process of defining the problem in terms of positions will mean that at least
one party will lose the dispute.
3) Generate on variety
of options before settling on agreement
The parties may define
the problem in win lose situation where one party will win and other will lose.
There is a need to come up with creative options and parties should come
together in an informal atmosphere and brainstorm for all the possible
solutions to problem.
4) Using the Objective
This means when the
interest are directly opposed the parties should use objective criteria to
resolve their differences and there can be three scenarios to this.
a) When the other party
is more powerful
The party is which is
weaker should concentrate on assessing the best alternative to negotiated agreement
b) When the other party
will not use principled negotiation
In this case parties who
are stuck in positional bargaining one side may continue on principled approach
or principled party may use “negotiation
jujitsu” or using a one text approach could be a solution to this obstacle
c) When the other party
uses dirty tricks
intentionally engage in deception or there could be psychological warfare or
there could be positional pressure tactics.