Aging and gets replaced with fibrous connective

Aging is the gradual and spontaneous
change that occurs in the formation from baby to older adult (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 9/6/17). Normal aging is the result of the natural
maturation process while pathological aging is due to changes that occur due to
diseases or disorders in aging. Consecutively, reserve capacity in old age in
the body decreases especially when the demand is highly stressful, affecting
the function of the body in different ways (Personal communication, Saszik
lecture, 8/30/17). For example, homeostasis is more difficult to maintain as
reserve capacity decreases and is more susceptible to diseases, infections and
accidents (Personal communication, Saszik lecture, 8/30/17)..
In order to explain what normal aging is, the following theories of aging will
be introduced: the endocrine theory, the immunologic theory, and the
cross-linking theory.

               First,
the endocrine theory is biological clocks that act through hormones to control
the pace of aging. An example of a pathological change in such theory is
menopause (Personal communication, Saszik lecture, 9/6/17). It is known that
menopause is the end of the menstrual cycle in the reproductive system in
women. The period of transition in which the reproductive capacity decreases
until finally closing is known as the climacteric (Saxon et al., 2014). During
the climacteric period, the duration of the menstrual period becomes less
regular having shorter or longer menstrual periods during the premenopausal
months. These climatic changes result from the decreased production of hormones
associated with menstruation, especially estrogen and progesterone produced by
the ovaries (Saxon et al., 2014).

Second, the immunologic theory is a programmed decline
in the immune system that leads to an increased vulnerability to diseases,
aging and death. For example, there is a decrease in the size of the thymus
gland as individual age (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 9/6/17). The
thymus gland is large in children but shrinks in size with age (Saxon et al., 2014), and gets replaced with fibrous connective tissue and
adipose tissue (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 11/29/17).

Lastly, the cross-linking theory is the accumulation
of cross-linked proteins that damage cells and tissues, slowing bodily
processes (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 9/6/17).
It is also called glycation, and it can be both endogenous or exogenous. For example,
exogenous glycation is created when sugars are cooked with proteins or fats (Personal communication, Saszik lecture,
9/6/17). While, endogenous glycation is
the consumption of high glycation sugars (fructose and glucose) that contribute
to great amounts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) found in the body (Personal communication, Saszik lecture,
9/6/17). Diabetes increase blood sugar
level and reduce the kidney’s ability to excrete AGEs. In both exogenous and
endogenous glycation, diabetes tends to be a reactive molecule that lead to
age-related disease (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 9/6/17).
Such disease is found in the pancreas (Personal communication, Saszik lecture, 11/29/17). The pancreas is a gland with both exocrine and endocrine
function (Saxon et al., 2014). Also, there is two hormones produced in the pancreas
called insulin (lowers blood glucose level) and glucagon (raises blood glucose
level) (Personal
communication, Saszik lecture, 11/29/17). 

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