In as compared to these cities. A


In any research work literature review is very important. In past a lot
of work has been done on road safety.

methodologies have been used by different groups. Many researchers have carried
out research work in the area of road accidents. Accident data have been
analyzed by different ways by many different researchers like- Identification
of Black spot zone, Some of them have developed accident models for forecasting
future accident trends.

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They have also
proposed strategies for road safety. On some national highways more number of
accidents have been observed from in a specific time zone. This maybe due to
the increase number of busses in that route during this time.

Each country has
primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and hence
monitoring this will be very beneficial for the country.

Road traffic
injuries are a major health and development challenge: they are the eighth
overall cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for youth aged
15-29 (Global status report on road safety, WHO(2013e).

On current
trends it may become the fifth leading cause of death by 2030.There research
work has to be done to bring good policies and reduce road accidents.

In India Road traffic
injuries are the 8th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of
overall health loss.


In a paper published by
Dinesh Mohan Sir on road safety in India  official statistics says that  141,526 persons were killed and 477,731
injured in road traffic crashes in 2000 (NCRB, 2015). This is probably an
underestimate, as not all injuries are reported to the police.

The number of fatalities has continued to increase at about seven
per cent a year over the past decade.


Also in the urban cities the fatality rate of pedestrians are
really high. In mega cities like Mumbai and Delhi the fatalities of motorized
two wheelers are less as compared to the cities like Bhopal Agra &Amritsar

It maybe because in mega cities use of motorized  two wheeler vehicles(MTW) is less as compared
to these cities. A surprising thing in the city of Bhopal was that
motorized  two wheeler vehicles(MTW) was
involved in the fatalities of pedestrians and MTW.

This maybe because the space for pedestrians on road is less and
therefore MTW and pedestrians have to share the roadspace.

In the cities it was found that fatalities of pedestrians and MTW
were more during 20:00 to 23:00 .It might be because traffic volume during this
time is low and therefore the vehicle speed is faster in night and therefore
leading to road crashes and fatalities.


A research paper of a model base based on
intersection of roads parameter by Dr. NSSR Murthy and R. Srinivasa Rao
Professor,  Mumtaz College of Eng.
Hyderabad Relation between accidents/year and various intersection parameters
were found and a model was developed from 
analysis. As number of intersections increase, accident rate increases,
major traffic, unpaved roads,speed and turning radius have positive relation
with accident rate.

Road traffic accidents are usually caused  by three major components of road safety-

·       The

(the behavior of man
which depends on his/her age ,education level ,traffic behavior,driving
experience,visibility,use of drugs and alcohol)


·       The

condtions like haze and rainfall)


·       The
vehicle (the means of


decisions for working government for effective road traffic injury prevention
should be based on reliable data and evidence of what works.Resources will be
wasted if they are spent on non effective works.


The most appropriate calculation methodology depends
on the application. For most applications emission factors based on average
speed or for a set of typical traffic situations  will allow emission estimates to be made with
sufficient accuracy. But there are certain areas were emission changes due to
changes in driving dynamics have to be estimated.

The principles apply, with some exceptions, to all
pollutants and vehicle types, but different classes of vehicle behave
differently and relationships between emissions and operating characteristics
vary for each pollutant.  For that
reason, an estimate of emissions from mixed traffic must be made as a summation
of emissions from each homogeneous vehicle class in the traffic, and where the
area studied contains roads with different traffic behaviour, this must also be
taken into account.  And, of course, this
must be done separately for each pollutant.

In practice, the fuel combustion does not proceed
according to the ideal equation;  some of
the carbon is incompletely oxidised and is emitted as CO or carbon particles (PM),
some fuel escapes combustion and is emitted as VOC, and NOX are produced
because of the oxidation of nitrogen in the air and traces in the fuel
itself.  Alternatively, the mass of any
one of the carbon containing pollutants may be calculated from the mass of fuel
and the amounts of the others.  However,
this would be imprecise except for CO2 because the other compounds are produced
in relatively small amounts.

It is also uncommon to find directly measured data
on the emissions of lead and sulphur dioxide, but this is unimportant as they
may be estimated with reasonable accuracy from the fuel consumption and the
amounts of lead and sulphur in the fuel.

The longest established of these methods exploits
the fact that average emissions over a trip vary according to the average speed
of the trip.  The characteristic shapes
of the speed emission curves are well known and though they vary somewhat
depending on the type of vehicle and the pollutant, they generally show high
emissions at slow average speeds when the vehicle operation is inefficient
because of stops, starts and delays, a tendency to high emissions at high
speeds because of the high power demand on the engine, and minimum emissions in
the middle speed range.

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