Whether other mental illnesses such as anxiety,

Whether in the army, or an regular citizen, many people have gone through or seen traumatizing events  that can negatively affect their well-being for the rest of their lives. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD is a mental health condition that can occur when a person witnesses or goes through a traumatic experience. PTSD is classified as an anxiety disorder that can be characterized by disturbing memories, avoidance behaviors, and hyper anxiety (Goodrich et al).  These consequences present the question: what are the mental, behavioral, and social effects that PTSD creates on the lives of those who suffer from it? PTSD has great negative effects on the human mind. Some of the effects of PTSD on the brain include forgetfulness, an inability to concentrate, and a difficulty in processing simple information. Furthermore, PTSD is related with high presences of other mental illnesses such as anxiety, which can further damage the mind (Goodrich et al; Kennedy et al). These effects are seen particularly in children, whose brains are more susceptible due to their still developing body (Weber and Reynolds).  In a journal by Weber and Reynolds, it was said that trauma can lead to abnormalities in neurochemicals and brain degeneration. Specifically, the part of the brain that relays sensory information such as memory and navigation is reduced by up to 18% (Goodrich et al; Weber and Reynolds). Also, receptors in the brain that are used to help the body physiologically adapt to stress are decreased in depression and chronic stress which are  often triggered by PTSD. Cortisol is one of these chemicals a body releases to help shutdown reactions that damage the brain and help react to stress; the availability of cortisol is lowered because of PTSD (Weber and Reynolds). There are also behavioral differences in those who suffer from PTSD. Some effects of PTSD include random violent outbursts that can both damage property or affect other individuals (Kennedy et al). Victims can also show exaggerated responses to normal situations, hypervigilance (enhanced state of sensory sensitivity), and increased arousal (Goodrich et al). It is also shown that those with PTSD are more likely to have anxiety than those without it (Horesh et al). Additionally, those who suffer from PTSD are also more likely to increase their use of alcohol in non-social occasions, often drinking in the morning or while alone at night. This substance the supposedly helps them sleep works counterproductively, increasing sleep deprivation and early awakening which can then lead to increased irritability (Kennedy et al). Guilt is also often felt. If others died during their traumatic experience and the victim survived, they may feel unworthy or question why they survived and not others. This guilt many feel from experiencing the event can penetrate their personality and leads to depressive thoughts and actions (Solomon et al; Kennedy et al). These depressive feelings and thoughts increase when weapons and alcohol are available.   PTSD can also create negative social consequences from those who suffer from it. In a study of the social functioning of members with PTSD it was shown that those who had PTSD reported more problems with their partners, less family cohesion, and an overall lower life satisfaction rating (Tsai et al). One reason for the relationship problems caused by PTSD is that PTSD can lead to greater social avoidance, which can also lead to to family distress (Tsai et al). Another mediator in the lower sociability of victims is that many with PTSD don’t trust the goodwill of others and often want to keep themselves distant from others. This is related to attachment anxiety in which victims feel as though there partner will not be available to help in times of need and in which victims wish for care that their partners don’t always have time to give (Solomon et a; Horesh et al). The outcome of all these factors is often divorce (shown by the elevated divorce rates of vietnam veterans), decrease in the victims social network, and a decrease in social support (Tsai et al).       All these factors contribute to how the daily lives of victims of PTSD are affected. The consequences shown on how PTSD affects the brain, the behavior, and the social lives of victims can all help better treatment for those with PTSD.

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