Cyber issue causing continual or distress to

Cyber Crime
& Cyber Security: Be Vigilant, Not Victim

 

In this age where the use of
computers and networks related to them has become commonplace, there has been
developed problems concerning cyber security. Cyber Security is an important
factor to be considered if one is willing to protect himself from malicious
people and software from the internet. Most of threats to computer networks
come from internet and these are often intentional, having been developed by
people with malicious intent. Cyber Security is therefore an attempt by
individuals to protect their personal information, data and other digital
assets from attacks through internet.

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The present paper exhibits the trends of Cyber Crime
in India during 2011 to 2016. The paper also highlights the detailed concept of
Cyber Security and talks about initiative taken by Government of India to
counter Cyber Crime. The paper, in the end offers recommendations dealing with
the challenges of Cyber Security.

Keywords:
Cyber Crime, Cyber Security, Vulnerability

Author’s  correspondence:
Vipul Adhana,
Masters of Technology(CSE)
Delhi Institute of
Management & Technology, Faridabad
Affiliated to Maharishi
Dayanand University, Rohtak
Email: [email protected]
 
Deepak Kumar Adhana
Research Scholar,
Institute of Management
Studies and Research (IMSAR),
Maharishi Dayanand
University, Rohtak
Email: [email protected]

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. INTRODUCTION:

Cybercrime is a global issue causing
continual or distress to the world. The dictionary meaning of cybercrime is
“crime conducted via the Internet or some other computer network”. The
definition remains very broad in the sense that the term “cyber” is defined as
“relating to the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual
reality.” Cyber Crime, or computer related crime, is crime that involves a
computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of
crime, or it may be the target. One of the highly impressive definition of
cybercrimes as: “Offences that are committed against individual or groups of
individuals with criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of victim
or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or
indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet (networks
including but not limited to Chat rooms, emails, notice boards & groups)
and mobile phones (Wi-Fi/ Bluetooth/ SMS/ MMS)”.

Due to growing number of people
gaining access to the internet, rapid development in the field of technology,
and globalisation of the world, more of the world population is becoming
susceptible to involvement in cybercrime; whether it is as a victim or a
criminal. The advantages of technology and the internet have led more criminals
to make use of cyberspace forcommitting online crimes. As globalisation continues
to spread across the planet, the threat of cybercrime is also increasing. While
the impact of globalisation has led to amazing discoveries throughout the
world, internet connectivity has also made cybercrime easier. Cybercrime may
threaten a person or a nation’s security and financial health. Issues
surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance,
child pornography and child grooming.

Forgery                       
Counterfeiting
Identity theft
Tax evasion
Electronic vandalism
 

 

Interception/ tampering
Spam and DOS
Spoofing, shilling, bidding
agents
Pumping and dumping
 

 

Electronic terrorism
Espionage
RTP/UTP
Sales, Investment frauds
Advertising frauds
 

 

TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

II. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY:

The
study has been geared to achieve the following objectives;

1.     
To analyse the detailed
concept of Cyber Crime and Cyber Security

2.     
To highlights the Cyber Security initiative by
Government of India

3.      To construct
the suggestions dealing with the challenges of cyber security

III. CYBERCRIMES IN INDIA:

The National Crime
Records Bureau (NCRB) recorded 12317 cyber-crimes in 2016. Cyber-crime cases
registered under various heads have increased by 6.3% in 2016 over the year
before. Including the pending investigation from 2015, the police ended up with
a total number of 14973 cyber-crimes cases to investigate at the end of 2016.

The number of cyber-crime
cases solved by police in 2016 stands at 9213; charge sheets were submitted in
3712 cases, while 4424 cases were found to have insufficient evidence.

A. STATE & CITY WISE CYBER-CRIME RECORD IN YEAR 2016:

According to National Crime Records
Bureau (NCRB), 12,317 cyber-crimes were recorded in the year 2016. Incidence of
cyber-crime has shown an increase of 6.3% in 2016 (12,317) over 2015 (11,592).
During that year Uttar Pradesh reported the maximum number of cyber-crimes with
2639, accounting for 21.4%. Maharashtra stands second with 2380 cases
accounting for 19.3% followed by Karnataka with 1101 cases accounting for 8.9%.

In India, Mumbai has
reported highest number of cases under cybercrime (980) accounting to 23.5%
during 2016 followed by Bengaluru, Jaipur and Lucknow.

B. MOTIVES OF CYBER-CRIMES:

·        
Illegal Gain emerged as the top motive
behind cyber-crimes with 5987 cases

·        
Revenge was 2nd most motive
behind cyber-crimes with 1056 cases

·        
686 cases were registered for insult to
modesty of women

·        
There were 569 cases registered under
the head sexual exploitation

·        
571 cases were registered under the head
extortion and blackmailing

·        
There were 40 cases that were done with
political motive

·        
149 cases inciting crimes against a
community

·        
3 cases inciting crimes against the
country

·        
14 cases pertaining to sales and
purchase of illegal drugs

·        
448 cases were accounted for causing
disrepute

C. A Statistics of Cyber Crimes in India:

Year

IT Act

IPC

 

Cases Registered

Persons Arrested

Cases Registered

Persons Arrested

 

2011

1791

1184

422

446

2012

2876

1522

601

549

2013

4356

2098

1337

1203

2014

7201

4246

2272

1224

2015

8045

5102

3422

2867

Total

24269

14152

8054

6289

Table
1: Statistics of Cyber Crimes in India

Source: Factly.in

D. CYBER CRIME CASES REGISTERD UNDER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
ACT, 2000:

Nearly 8500 cases were
filled under the Information Technology Act. The act deals with dishonestly
receiving stolen computer resources identify thefts, cheating by impersonation
using computer and violation of privacy.

Breakup of cases registered cases under IT Act are as
follows:

TYPE

TOTAL NO.
OF CASES UNDER IT ACT

% OF
OVERALL

Tempering computer source documents

78

0.91

Computer related crimes

6818

79.16

Cyber terrorism

12

0.14

Publication of obscene/sexually explicit content

957

11.11

Breach of confidentiality/privacy

35

0.41

Other cyber-crimes under IT Act

713

8.28

Total number of cyber-crimes under IT Act

8613

100

The numbers of cases
registered under the Information Technology Act, 2000 and Indian Penal Code
(IPC) have been growing continuously. The cases registered under the IT act
grew by more than 350% during 2011 to 2015. There has been almost a 70%
increase in the number of cyber crimes registered under IT act from 2013 to
2014. On the other side the cases registered under IPC has increased by more
than 7 times between 2011-2015. Similar trend is observed in the number of
persons arrested for committing cybercrime.

The government also acknowledges the
increase in the number of such crimes and that the introduction of
technologies, devices including smart phones and complex applications, and rise
in usage of cyber space for businesses has resulted in such an increase.

With increasing internet access, cyber crimes have also been raised in
the last few years. As a result to counter cybercrime, Cyber Security has
become the need of hour. Cyber security involves protecting the information by
preventing, detecting, and responding to cyber-attacks.

Cyber Attackers:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. CYBER SECURITY:

            Cyber
Security, also known as computer security or information technology security is
the protection of computer systems from theft or damage to the hardware,
software or the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection
of the services they provide. In short it can be said that cyber security is
protection of systems, networks and data in cyberspace.

It include controlling physical
access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via
network access, data and code injection, and due to malpractice by operators,
whether intentional, accidental or due to them being tricked into deviating
from secure procedures.

Definition: Cyber
security or information technology security are the techniques of protecting
computers, networks, programs and data from unauthorized access or attacks that
are aimed for exploitation and misuse of information theft.

The main four concerned areas of
cyber security are

Confidentiality: Only authorized users can access the data resource and information

Integrity:
Only authorized users should be able to modify the data as and when needed

Availability:
Data should be available to users when needed

Authentication:
Are you really communicating with whom you think you are communicating with

Description:  Major areas covered in cyber security are:

1) Software Security   2) Data Security   3) Disaster Recovery   4) Network Security

Software Security Software security is the area where confidential information is stored
hence it requires the highest security. There are applications such as online
banking software and train reservation systems which require highest level of security.
So it’s a major area of cyber security that needs special attention. Basic
techniques used for application security are

a) Input
parameter validation

b) User/Role
authentication and authorization

c) Session
management

d) Auditing and
logging.

Data Security

Data security deals in securing the
data from illegal or unauthorized access. Information or data is the foremost
part of cyber world. So according to data security here we deal with the
systems that are much more secure.Major techniques used to cover data security
are:

a)     
Identification of user:

Under this technique a user is identified as human
being, robot or any other so that unfair act can be stopped easily.

b)    
Authentication & authorization
of user:

This techniques aims to authenticate and authorize
the user under this user required to enter the password or other secure sign in
techniques.

c)     
Cryptography:

This technique claims the highest same and secure
data access as data is being locked with a key and key given to the end user
using some encryption and decryption methods, so without the specific user
nobody else can see the data. There are so many sub categories of cryptography
which helps data safety in every manner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disaster Recovery the concept came in existence in mid-1970 when most of the computers were
batch oriented mainframes; which in many cases may be down for couple of days
before damage. Here disaster recovery can be well understood as recovering the
system to its previous working state. Disaster recovery can be classified as
below methods:

a)     
Backup

Backup is simple reserving a copy of
running state of the system so that in case of any mishap the data can easily
be retained without any risk. For the perfect backup, data should be copied to
external devices such as disks or hard disk drives.

b)    
Restore

Restoring is an act of re-storing the
data taken while backup, restore mechanism is needed when a system failed to
response and there becomes a complicated situation to access the system. So
restore is the only option to get rid from the disaster.

Control measures of disaster recovery
are:

a)     
Preventive

b)    
Detective

c)     
Corrective

Network Security includes the network through which the information is being flowing. A
network security is needed because today most of the data flows from one place
to another through the network only either it a bank transaction or any other
confidential transaction. One can easily secure the network by following
components available to secure the network

a)     
Antivirus and anti-spyware

b)    
Firewalls to block unpermitted
access

c)     
Virtual Private Network(VPN) to
ensure safe network tunnel

The field is of growing importance
due to increasing reliance on computer systems and the internet is most
societies, wireless networks such as Bluetooth & Wi-Fi and the growth of
smart devices, including smart phones, televisions and the tiny devices as part
of Internet of Things.   

PHASES OF CYBER SECURITY:

Detect: Anomaly
Detection, Continuous detection

Identify: Asset
Management, Vulnerability Assessment

Respond: Malware
Analysis, Forensic Remediation, Incident Response

Recover:
Disaster Recovery, Threat Mitigation, Continuity of Operation

Protect: Access
Control, Data Security, Threat Protection

CYBER SECURITY EXPERTS AROUND THE WORLD:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above statistics is very
disappointing as India needs much more experts to cope in digital era with
other developed countries around.

STEPS TO FOLLOW IF ONE BECOMES VICTIM OF
CYBER CRIME:

·        
Disconnect your system from internet as
early as possible, as this would automatically minimize the risk of entering to
danger zone

·        
Close all accounts whether it’s for  Mailing, Messengers or other online logged
accounts

·        
Scan your device with antivirus, this
will search for threat to your system if anyone left to gain the access from
your system

·        
Create the backup or image of the system

·        
Reinstall your operating system after
backup

V. RECOMMENDATIONS:

Some recommendations for individual
users are given below:

v  Must
have latest patches and updates installed on your computer

v  Computer
should be configured securely

v  Setup
the fraud alerts

v  Choose
strong password to login the system and keep on updating the password
frequently

v  Enable
remote access connection or VPN only if you have powerful firewall installed

v  Personal
information on system must be two step secure

v  Review
your bank and credit cards statement regularly

v  Avoid
using public Wi-Fi networks

v  Do
not overshare on social media platform

v  Do
not respond to mails asking for your bank and credit card details

Some recommendations for government
and its authorities are given below:

v  Need to
sensitize the common citizen about a danger of cyber terrorism.

v  Join
efforts by all government agencies including defense forces to attract
qualified, skilled personal for implementation of counter measures

v  More
investment in Cyber Security

v  Government
law and IT act need to be amended

v  Need to
have more international collaboration in the field of cyber security and
favours handling issue of cyber terrorism in cooperation with other advanced
countries

v  Fund and encourage
research and PhDs in the area of cyber security 

VI. CONCLUSION:

Cyber
security is a complex subject, whose understanding requires knowledge and
expertise from multiple disciplines, including but not limited to computer
science and information technology, psychology, economics, organizational
behavior, political science, engineering, sociology, decision sciences,
international relations, and law.

A common
vision is required to ensure cyber security and prevent cyber crimes. The time
has come to prioritize cyber security in India’s counter terrorism strategy.Given
the rapid transformation of the cyber landscape since 2013, as well as the need
for a more comprehensive framework for the operationalization of the vision of
cyber security policy as laid out by the government, India needs to update its
cyber security policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIII. REFERENCES:

1. http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/11/23/insights-mindmaps-cyber-security-india-bots
todays-world/

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cyber_Security_Policy_2013

3. http://www.cyberswachhtakendra.gov.in/about.html

4. https://factly.in/cyber-crimes-in-india-which-state-tops-the-chart/

5. Cisco India unveils three cyber
security initiatives, The Week, 22 December 2016,

http://www.theweek.in/news/sci-tech/cisco-india-unveils-three-cyber-security-initiatives.html

6. FACT SHEET: Framework for the
U.S.-India Cyber Relationship, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary,

https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/06/07/fact-sheet-framework-us-india-cyber-relationship

7. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/how-india-inc-is-losing-its-cybersecurity-war/articleshow/61074845.cms

8. http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/ORfRrY3ecTFGlKOsJlrqAJ/Digital-India-needs-a-cybersecurity-reboot.html

 

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