TASK the master boot record on the

TASK 4On this page I will explain the two major types of HDD formatting; High and Low as well as explaining why defragmenting the disk is a must to keep the system running at optimum performance. I will explain what web cookies and history are and the benefit of deleting or keeping them on the hard drive.DRIVE FORMATTINGThere are two main types of formatting:Low level formatting – This type of formatting creates new tracks, sectors and clusters on the disk where data is to be stored. Sectors are 512 bytes on traditional HDDs although on newer drives they use 4096 byte sectors which are called advanced format drives.Clusters contain a group of sectors. Each of these clusters has its own ID and address so that the hard drive is able to easily find each one. Most folders fill up multiple clusters on the hard drive.Track consist of a hole ring around the disk which in turn contains a lot of different sectors.High level formatting – High level formatting initializes portions of the disk. It creates the master boot record on the very first sector which is where the OS is stored and booted from. As well as the MBR it also writes the file allocation table (FAT) which is used to map out the cluster so they are in order and easier to find.CLEAN UP TOOLSDefragmentation:Fragmentation occurs in the disk when the HDD is almost full and other files in previous tracks have been deleted and marked for rewrite. This means when the user attempts to install, download or create a new file, the file may be split up into different clusters and tracks of the deleted files or empty space. Therefore it makes the arm slower in gathering the data needed to open or display the file. The user can download disk defragmentation software in order to sort out how the tracks and sectors are laid out and allowing the drive to read and display the files more promptly. For example when opening a word document if the disk is fragmented it may take a few more seconds to open depending on how fragmented the file is, this is opposed to the almost instant opening without fragmentation.Web Cookies and history:When you visit a webpage for the first time that utilises cookies, cookies are downloaded onto your computer. Whenever you visit that site the next time, your computer verifies whether it has a previously downloaded cookie that is significant to that website. When the webpage recognises the cookie it retrieves the data contained in that cookie and sends it back to the site. This allows the site to offer customer specific ads, services and searches. Cookies can record how long a user is on each page, clicked links, and even previously stored products in the users checkout basket.Cookies however have negative effects on the performance of your web browser, they can be very large and take a lot of space up on the users hard drive. This can severely decreased the loading speed of webpages as the web server has to look though all the cookies locally stored by your browser to find the one correlated to that website. Cookies can also be used by hackers to steal personal information inputted on a phishing website.There are laws against hiding the use of cookies in webpages. This means websites must display the use of cookies to their users either via a contract or alert on screen.If the users machine gets infected by unwanted hacking cookies their internet history can get stolen as well as saved password for websites.SECURITYVirus Protection:Virus protection software is a must have for users downloading and searching the internet. If this is not installed there will be nothing to block viruses and malware from infected the computer and stealing personal information. Viruses and malware can severely decrease the performance of a computer as it has full access to the computers files and takes up a lot of performance space when run.Viruses and malware are illegal to create in every country and can lead to jailtime if personal data is stolen.The leading antivirus companies are Norton, Kaspersky and Mcafee.Firewall:Devices connected with the Internet are a potential focus to a variety of digital dangers, for example, viruses, malware, keyloggers, and Trojans that assault through unpatched security gaps in the system. This implies on the off chance that you, participate in online banking or online shopping, you are at risk of being a victim of data fraud, identity theft and different malicious attacks. A firewall fills in as an obstruction, or a shield, between your PC and the internet. When you are using the Internet, you are always sending and accepting data in units called packets. The firewall channels these packets to check whether they meet certain criteria set by a set of rules, and from that point denies or allows the data access. Thusly, programmers can’t get inside and take data, for example, They are unable to steal previously logged in passwordsMost modern firewalls likewise incorporate a component that constantly refreshes the rundown of known great and known noxious applications. Therefore questions to the internet are minimized which keeps your antivirus running at its best performance.There are 3 types of firewalls:Packet filters – This is a technique the firewall uses to control access to the network by packets. It either allows or denies packets entry to the IP destination. Firewalls have layers of this and rules set to avoid as much unauthorised access as possible. Packet Filtering is also known as “Static Filtering”.Stateful inspection – This firewall monitors the active connections to the network which then sends the information of what packets to deniy or allow to the packet filter.ProxysOverall I have found that all of this software is very important to keep the system running at optimum performance. All these programs are used either to clean up files stored on the hard drive or to stop illegal unauthorized access into the system by hackers and malware.

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