Name: society, particularly through rationalization and modernization,

Name: ____Amanda


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Sociology of Religion



Reading Quiz:


must complete a reading quiz on assigned readings for each module. Answers
should be 3-5 sentences in length. Use direct quotes with citations
as appropriate. ????????????????


1.     What is secularization?

                        Secularization is when
over time religion becomes less significant in social and cultural
significance. As a result of secularization, the influence of religion in today’s
societies becomes confined. In societies that have been secularized there is no
importance on faith, and religious organizations diminish in social settings. Secularization
is the evolution of a society from a closer religious identity through values
and institutions into a more nonreligious ideology. Chapter 3 explains the
theory of secularization as a term that refers to the beliefs that progress with
society, particularly through rationalization and modernization, religious
loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance (Christiano,
Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:56-60). “There is no doubt that the separation of church
and state has consequences for religion organizations and for the lives of individual
citizens” (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:60).


2.     What do we mean by “civil


                        “Civil religion,” is how
Robert Bellah termed the definition of the relationship between religion and
how the United States identifies (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:65). Bellah’s
believed that most people in the United States’ share similar religious
ideology based on beliefs, rituals, and symbols that provides religious
guidelines. Bellah also believes that “civil religion” is held to a higher
standard and people should judge it accordingly. Bellah describes “civil
religion” as “an institution collection of sacred beliefs about the American
nation.” (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:60), which you can see throughout
history in the founding structure of our country; look at the founding
documents and inaugural addresses. Some examples of “civil religion” are; “In
God We Trust,” “God Bless America,” the National Anthem, the use of religious
symbols on public buildings, etc., (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:67).  


3.     Discuss the mainlines and sidelines
of religion in the US.  

                        Chapter 4 is focused on
religion in the United States’ and adds is a helpful table that depicts the
differences of religious involvements, beliefs, and practices by different
denominational and interdenominational groups. When looking at the pie chart
you can see majority of it is covered with Evangelical Protestants, Unaffiliated,
and Roman Catholics, while mainline protestants, others, black protestants, and
Jews fill the rest. The chapter then goes into the different sub groups into
more detail, explaining why each of the bigger groups is declining while some
of the smaller such like “other” is growing. For example, protestants belong to
a vase array of specific organizations, has had a staggering plummet of
membership in the last era. One particular denomination the Southern Baptist
Convention has lost about 16 million members from the 90’s into 2000’s. The
other denomination worth pointing out is the “other” category which seems to
have been having a steady increase, even though some feel that this will have a
negative outcome for our society’s integrity and moral beliefs (Christiano,
Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:109). This chapter also had a lot to blame on the 1960’s
for the religious change and shifting ideologies. The 60’s brought a lot of
sexual-familial changes, especially in the structure of family. People were
having children before marriage, remarriages, much older births, easy divorces,
more women getting their education and working (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto,


4.     Compare and contrast evangelicals
and fundamentalists.

                        Religious fundamentalists
are people that are in opposition to the modern world and believe that everyone
should do what the Bible says, but not all fundamentalists believe the same things,
but the most common similarities are in things like abortion, homosexuality,
and feminism (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:114). The difference between
evangelicals and fundamentalists are that evangelicals have a much broader
range of political views and are more open to the modern world. Fundamentalists
tend to be on the more conservative and strict side, are very opposed to new
ideas (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:113). Evangelicals and fundamentalists
read the same bible but interpret it very differently. Fundamentalists believe
that humans have no rights other than to serve God, and that is the only reason
we exist. Religious fundamentalist also believes that homosexuals, and people
that do not believe in the same God or do not believe in God as all are going
to Hell. The also believe that men and women are not equal, and that God
created women from the sole purpose to serve man. Their lifestyle is consumed by
serving and worshiping God, although they get a lot of criticism about the way
the express their religion they live pretty normal lives. As for evangelicals
they don’t read the Bible word for word and have a more relax idea behind the
word of God. They see the metaphors and poetry in the readings and take them
for what they are worth to the individual. Both fundamentalists and
evangelicals believe that there should be degree of autonomy just the degree is
different, fundamentalist are strict in the separation between themselves and
the world. As for evangelicals they believe in just bring people to God and
will mingle with other religious faiths and beliefs for the sole purpose of
their mission to spread the word. Another comparison to the two are how
important family is. The children are raised in “the nurture and admonition of
the Lord” (Eph. 6:4), this contributes to them later in life and as they grow
they imbed their life in their family. The believed in you encompassed your
life around people of same ideology, the outside views, thoughts and
temptations would be avoided (Christiano, Swatos, Kivisto, 2016:117).



















Kevin J., William H. Swatos, and Peter Kivisto. 2016. Sociology of religion: contemporary developments. Lanham: Rowman &


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