Introduction: Government, with the purpose of limiting

Introduction: The one-child policy was created in the late 1970s by the Chinese Government, with the purpose of limiting the great majority of people in China to one child per family. The rationale behind this policy was to reduce the growth rate of China’s growing population. China began promoting the use of oral contraceptive and family planning through establishing the People’s Republic, created by Mao Zedong. By the late 1970s China’s population was close to the one-billion mark, and the country’s new leadership by Deng Xiaoping was starting to give serious consideration to stopping the rapid growth, thus came the one-child policy.The child policy is a broad topic, which can be categorized into smaller ones. Today, the one child policy still affects China, in ways that could not be able to be fixed. The policy was more effective in urban environments, because the population consisted of small nuclear families who were more willing to go along with the law, than in rural areas, with their traditional agrarian extended families that resisted the one-child restriction. Some people followed along with this policy, many did not and the government punished them for this act. What is the One-Child Policy in China?For about three decades, this policy has forced Chinese families to only have one child. The one-child policy was introduced in 1979 when the government feared a rapid increase in population size after the baby boom. The Chinese citizens risked harassment and varying taxes from local authorities if they had more than one child. “China’s Communist Party leaders started the policy in 1980 to stop the rapid childbirth. It has been heavily debated and it has been one of history’s biggest experiments. According to the article, 17,000 women in the county were forced to have abortions and sterilized.” (New York Times).  Also local officials were collecting money even from families who had already been fined and looted the homes of those who did not have enough money to pay.”Chinese society was reshaped due to this policy, with birth rates plunging from 4.77 children per woman in the early 1970s to 1.64 in 2011, according to estimates by the United Nations.” (BBC).  It also contributed to the world’s most unbalanced sex ratio at birth, with boys far outnumbering girls. It is estimated to have prevented about 400 million births. Because of the old generation that is happening right now, concerns at China’s ageing population led to pressure for change.Change”My Chinese citizens were already allowed to have a second child because of some exceptions in the policy.  For years, rural peasants whose first child was a girl were permitted to have a second child.” (CNN). In addition, couples who are both ethnic minorities and couples who are both only children were already allowed to have a second child.In China, data and statistics on this topic are hard to find. State-run media sometimes say that China has 150 million families with only one child, although other researchers believe that this number is bigger. There are no public statistics existing for how many only children have spouses with at least one sibling, the group that will now be permitted to have a second child due to only have one child. This is one of the exceptions in the policy. Forced abortions have been brought up to the public by Human Rights Groups, infanticide is all banned in theory by the government. The policy has also left devastation in its wake in the form of childless parents. Much resentment also stems from the huge fines the government collects for violations, estimated to total billions of dollars. The precise amount because it is kept secret so nobody knows what the amount is, and the public is not told where the money goes.Repercussions China has an enormous population which causes economic and environmental challenges. The government also states that this policy has prevented about 400 million births. On the global scale, China claimed in 2011 that its policy single-handedly delayed by five years the date by which the world’s population reached 7­­ billion.China’s approximately 930 million person work force has decreases last year for the first time in decades. There needs to be a baby boom, says some researchers. China needs people who can support the aging population. However, it may be too little too late, given that the labor force is estimated to begin declining by as much as 10 million a year starting in 2025.It will take decades for the population to make a comeback and could be offset if wealthier and urban families start averaging fewer than two children as they become. Allowing more couples to have more children now should boost consumption almost right away for goods like infant formula, food and clothing, and education services. Shifting China’s export-driven economy further towards consumption-led growth is one of the government’s key economic goals.Mao ZedongMao was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People’s Republic of China. He was responsible for the disastrous policies of the ‘Great Leap Forward’ and the ‘Cultural Revolution’. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years Mao solidified his control through land reforms and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, and through campaigns against landlords, people he termed “counter-revolutionaries”, and other perceived enemies of the state. “In 1957 he launched a campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China’s economy from an agrarian economy to an industrial one. This campaign led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of more than 45 million people.” (Roderick MacFarquhar, New York Times). “A controversial figure, Mao Zedong is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history and is also known as a theorist, military strategist, poet and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising China and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy as China’s population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. (Chris Buckley, New York Times). Conversely, his autocratic totalitarian regime has been vastly condemned for overseeing mass repressions and destruction of religious and cultural artifacts and sites, which through arbitrary executions, purges and forced labor caused an estimated 40 to 70 million deaths, which would rank his tenure as the top incidence of excess mortality in human history.Gender Imbalance”When China implemented the one-child policy in 1979, the government expected local family planning officials to enforce it. However, implementing the rule proved harder in villages, where officials were also members of the community.” (Blaine Harden, New York Times). The country is infamous for its gender imbalance. Analysts have predicted that some 24 million Chinese men of marrying age will find themselves lacking wives by 2020.”Possibly the greatest demographic challenge China is facing has to do with a hugely discrepant gender imbalance. On average, 118 boys are born for every 100 girls compared to the world average of 103 to 107, respectively” (BBC News). The effects of the imbalance are already felt by an aging population and in time, it could seriously affect Chinese society for the worse.Traditionally, Chinese culture puts great value on boys, while girls are shun. Together with the one-child policy, this means that a couple only had one chance to have a boy. “Because of this cultural norm that places a premium on boys, the policy’s victims also included first-conceived children simply because they happened to be girls. For over three decades, China’s One-Child Policy has condemned approximately 37 million Chinese girls who the policy helped deem unwanted or “surplus” to abortion, infanticide, abandonment and human trafficking.” (BBC News). Senthilingam, Meera. “How Quickly Can China Come Back from One-Child Policy?” CNN, Cable News Network, 13 Oct. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/10/13/health/china-one-child-policy-population-growth/index.html.The paper predicts that the updated policy will bring a peak in population size of 1.45 billion people in 2029, compared with 1.4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy had stayed in place.The country’s fertility rate fell dramatically, from a peak of almost six births per female between 1960 and 1965 to 1.5 per woman between 1995 and 2014.In the years in between, amendments and caveats were added, allowing rural couples to have a second child if their first was a girl and then allowing couples who are only children to have a second child.”At birth, there have been 1.15 males to every female born in China in 2016, the most skewed gender ratio in the world. The paper predicts that almost 30 years of the one-child policy will, by 2020, leave an excess of 30 million men who are unlikely to marry and that this ratio will take time to even out.” (CNN) To cushion the consequences of this lag in population increase, there are a series of recommendations to support the aging population. The first is to increase the national retirement age: “China has one of the lowest in the world, at 55 for women and 60 for men. Next comes the strengthening of state pensions, particularly for rural pensioners who are more likely to be living alone while their child lives in the city, and to increase options for three-generational living, in which parents live with or near their children in the city.” CNNAssessment: This source is reliable because it has credible publishers and editors on the website. This website provides statistics and a plethora of information that applies to the topic I am researching. Rosenberg, Matt. “Why Did China Have a One-Child Policy?” ThoughtCo, www.thoughtco.com/chinas-one-child-policy-1435466.China’s one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit communist China’s population growth. Although designated a “temporary measure,” it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child. Fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and even forced sterilization accompanied second or subsequent pregnancies.Citizens living in rural areas and minorities living in China are not subject to the law. However, the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years.”This rule has caused a disdain for female infants; abortion, neglect, abandonment, and even infanticide have been known to occur in female infants. The result of such Draconian family planning has resulted in the disparate ratio of 114 males for every 100 females among babies from birth through children four years of age. Normally, 105 males are naturally born for every 100 females.” (ThoughtCo). Although IUDs, sterilization, and abortion (legal in China) are China’s most popular forms of birth control, over the past few years, China has provided more education and support for alternative birth control methods.Statistically, China’s total fertility rate (the number of births per woman) is 1.7, much higher than slowly-declining Germany at 1.4 but lower than the U.S. at 2.1 (2.1 births per woman is the replacement level of fertility, representing a stable population, exclusive of migration).In 2007, there were reports that in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China, officials were forcing pregnant women without permission to give birth to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violating the law. As a result, riots broke out and some may have been killed, including population control officials.Assessment: This website has credible publishers and editors as well, along with being a credible website according to EasyBib.com. It has information that corresponds with other credible websites as well. http://www.businessinsider.com/what-happened-when-people-violated-the-one-child-policy-2015-10Tasch, Barbara. “The Consequences of Violating China’s One-Child Policy Were Sometimes Horrific.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 30 Oct. 2015, www.businessinsider.com/what-happened-when-people-violated-the-one-child-policy-2015-10.In 2007, the Chinese newspaper China Daily claimed that less than 40% of the population was subjected to the policy. Many minority groups were exempt from the one-child limit, according to China Daily. Moreover, many couples who were both only children were allowed to have two kids even during the era of the one-child policy.The methods used to enforce the policy ranged from the wide distribution of diverse contraceptive methods; financial sanctions; and forced abortions and sterilizations for those who did not comply, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 2013, the Chinese government revealed that 336 million abortions and 196 million sterilizations had been performed since the early 1970s, when the country began moving to limit its population, according to the FT. (The one-child policy was officially put into place at the end of that decade.) The FT also reported that 403 million  intrauterine devices had been inserted in women in that time, often forcefully.One of the women interviewed said officials took her from her home, kicked her in the belly, and forced her to go to the hospital — where her fetus was aborted and she was sterilized. Every women in the county was sterilized, she said.Another woman said she was forced to have an abortion when she was over eight months pregnant. “He was still alive after the nurse pulled him out from me. He was a tough little creature. He clutched the nurse’s sleeve and wouldn’t let go. She had to peel his fingers off her one by one before she could drop him into the bin,” the woman told Jian. The crackdown led to the biggest protests China had seen since the unrest in Tiananmen Square in 1989. Thousands of protesters torched government buildings in Bobai County to fight against the crackdown, according to the Guardian. Yet, China only apparently changed its policy because its population is aging and it needs an infusion of young people to sustain its economy. Assessment: This source is credible because it contains credible publishers and editors. It is also on a credible news site which means that it is reliable because this information is available for the public.     Videos: https://youtu.be/pzdsc9ftVBsThere are disastrous repercussions of the One Child Policy. The problems can be traced back to chairman Mao. The abortions were forced, you either go willingly or the government comes for you. The people are worried because when they become sick, they don’t have many children to take care of them. The whole video should be watched about the One Child Policy.  https://youtu.be/D0BPWFnL_jYBecause of the One Child Policy, the only child is very spoiled. On the other hand, the children that are lost or sold to traffickers and left alone and have nothing. There is also a drag on the economy because of this policy. The video also discusses how woman feel bad about their bodies because the government owns their reproductive organs. You should watch the whole video discussing the unintended repercussions of the One Child Policy in China.  https://youtu.be/w_dGjB4suxYA couple was broken by the One Child Policy, they were forced to have an abortion three months before her baby boy was to be born. She is very sad and misses him, she is mad at the government. The government held her down and forced her abortion, the husband didn’t even know where she was because they took her. They put the aborted son in a dirty bucket, both the husband and wife were sobbing.           Pictures: Works Cited: Tasch, Barbara. “The Consequences of Violating China’s One-Child Policy Were Sometimes Horrific.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 30 Oct. 2015, www.businessinsider.com/what-happened-when-people-violated-the-one-child-policy-2015-10.Mara Hvistendahl Oct. 18, 2017 , 12:25 PM, et al. “Analysis of China’s One-Child Policy Sparks Uproar.” Science | AAAS, 8 Dec. 2017, www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/10/analysis-china-s-one-child-policy-sparks-uproar.Senthilingam, Meera. “How Quickly Can China Come Back from One-Child Policy?” CNN, Cable News Network, 13 Oct. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/10/13/health/china-one-child-policy-population-growth/index.html.Beech, Hannah. “China’s One-Child Policy: A Legacy.” Time, Time.Wang, Feng, et al. “The End of China’s One-Child Policy.” Brookings, Brookings, 28 July 2016.Ebenstein, Avraham. “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy.” Journal of Human Resources, jhr.uwpress.org/content/45/1/87.short.”Who Will Care for the Elderly in China?: A Review of the Problems Caused by China’s One-Child Policy and Their Potential Solutions.” Journal of Aging Studies, JAI, 21 Apr. 2006, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890406505000873.Zhu, Wei Xing, et al. “China’s Excess Males, Sex Selective Abortion, and One Child Policy: Analysis of Data from 2005 National Inter Census Survey.” The BMJ, British Medical Journal Publishing Group, 9 Apr. 2009, www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211″The Effect of China’s One-Child Family Policy after 25 Years — NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine, www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMhpr051833#t=article. 

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