Mozart a Mother, Anna Maria Pertl. His

Mozart was born on January 27th 1756 as Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Salzburg, Austria. He as born to a father, Leopold Mozart and a Mother, Anna Maria Pertl. His father came from a family that was well off, but he was estranged from. He published a famous playing  manual for the violin. Whilst his mother came from a middle class family and was active in local administration (Sadie). From a young age Leopold taught his children music, he started his daughter on keyboard at age seven, and Mozart was only 3 at the time but showed a great interest in the instrument. He began to mimic his sisters playing and showed a understanding above his age about chords, tonality, and tempo. Soon he too would be tutored by his father (Wolfgang). At 3 he was picking chords on a harpsichord, at 4 he was playing small pieces and at the age of 5 he began composing his own music (Sadie). As he recognized his children’s amazing talent, he began devoting all his time to their schooling, specifically in music but also in other subjects. It wasn’t long until young Mozart showed to be advancing too fast for his father’s teaching ability by composing a piece at 5 years old which showed his complex understanding of the harpsichord and violin. In 1762, Leopold took Mozart, age 6 and his sister, age 11 to Munich to play for the Bavarian court, which would turn out to be the first stop of many in their tour around Europe(Wolfgang).This tour is what got 6 year old Mozart recognized around Europe as a child prodigy(Van). The siblings and their dad traveled to courts of Paris, London, The Hague, and Zurich (Wolfgang) then on a later tour went to all the main musical centers of Europe; Augsburg, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels, and Paris for the winder, then London for 15 months then returned to  Hague, Amsterdam, Paris, Lyon, and Switzerland, and going back to Salzburg in November 1766 (Sadie). The trio met many composers and musicians during the tours, the most noteable being Johann Christian Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach’s youngest son (Wolfgang), In Germany, young Mozart first published his work, sonatas for violin and keyboard which he dedicated to the royal princess In 1767, they set out to Vienna where they’d spend 15 months. In those months Mozart wrote a German one-act titled Bastien und Bastienne, an Italian opera buffa named La finta semplice, and upon returning back to Salzburg in October of  1769 he was named an honorary Konzertmeister in the Salzburg court (Sadie). At the age of 13, Mozart and his dad set off yet again for a tour, only this time without his sister, her musical career was said to be over because she was almost marriageable age and according to the custom of the time, she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent in public. The tour lasted from about 1769-1771 because Leopold wanted to show off his son’s exquisite talent for composing and playing to as many people as possible. While in Rome, Mozart heard Gregorio Allegri’s Miserere at Sistine chapel once, then was able to write out the entire score from memory with only a few minor errors; this is when Leopold realized the extend to his young sons talent (Wolfgang). Mozart at 13 had also shown himself considerably fluent in the musical language and was very talented at mimicking the musical equivalent of local dialects. His work  at the time also showed an almost childlike enjoyment of patterns of notes and textures (Sadie). In 1772 Mozart and his father went on their last endeavor to Italy which stretched from October 1772 from March 1773. Mozart’s first piece to be written in this time was Lucio Silla, an opera given December 26th 1772. It’s premiere was a little rocky but after it proved to be more successful than Mitridate and was performed 26 times. After Lucio Silla he wrote a solo motet written for the solo singer Venanzio Rauzzini, who was a castrato and a fellow composer (Sadie) Upon returning to their home in 1773, they came home to find Mozart’s father’s benefactor, Archbishop von Schrattenbach had died. When they had settled home, the new archbishop appointed Mozart as assistant concertmaster and gave him a small salary. This turned out to be an amazing opportunity for Mozart because it allowed him to work in several different genres and composing symphonies, string quartets, sonatas, serenades and a few operas. In 1776 he began an interest in piano concertos, the highest peak of his interest can be shown in his Piano Concerto Number 9 in E flat major which was published in 1777, right after Mozart turned 21 (Wolfgang). Around this time, Mozart and his father started to feel that his pure talent was being wasted in the small court of Salzburg, they needed to go to someone bigger and where his talent would be more appreciated and showcased. So In 1777 Mozart petitioned for the Archbishop to release him from his job, once freed him and his mother took off to find a new home. They first went to Munich, where he was denied a position. Then they went to Augsburg and stayed with relatives , still nothing. Then they traveled to Mannheim, they stayed there for 4 months but no job came of the stay. There in Mannheim he wrote several piano sonatas. He and his mother went to Paris in late March  1778, Here, he finally found work. His most important work from his work here was the symphony (K 297) composed for the Concert Spirituel. By the time of its premiere, his mother had fell ill and later died on July 3rd 1778 (Sadie). After learning of his wife’s death, Leopold got his son a better job in the court of Salzburg and had him return home. Upon returning home, Mozart produced a series of church works, and operas for Munich. In March of 1781 he was called to Vienna  by Archbishop von Colloredo, but it didn’t last long due to the fact that the treatment Mozart received wasn’t up to this standard. He soon settled in Vienna, taking pupils, composing music and playing in several concerts. During this time he began to write the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail. On August 4th 1782, after a tedious debate with his father for a blessing, Mozart married Fridolin Weber’s daughter Constanze. He would go on to have 6 children with Constanze, only 2 ended up surviving infancy, Karl Thomas and Franz Xaver (Wolfgang). His opera Die Entführung aus dem serail had both immediate and long lasting success, it quickly was picked up by traveling companies, along with performing the piece, the traveling companies began spreading Mozart’s reputation around german speaking countries. As the world loved his piece, he on the other hand thought he wasn’t gaining enough profit from it and turned to other styles that he thought would lead to more profit. Later in the year he composed 3 piano concertos and began composing a set of 6 string quartets (Sadie). Around this time he also took a strong liking to Johannes Sebastian Bach and Handel’s work which led him to compose work in the Baroque style. He also met Joseph Haydn during this time, they became quite good friends, playing together whenever he came to Vienna. Mozart ended up writing 6 quartets dedicated to his dear friend. From 1782 to 1785, Mozart divvied up his time between self -produced concertos as a soloist, and showing 3 to 4 new piano concertos a season. Because of the difficulty of getting a theatre space to rent in Vienna, Mozart became creative about where he performed, for example he’d perform in large rooms in apartment buildings, and the ballrooms of expensive hotels. 1784 proved to be one of the most active years of his performing career, during a single 5 week period, he appeared in 22 concerts. Towards the end of 1785, Mozart met librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte, they collaborated on the opera The Marriage of Figaro which had a very successful premier in Vienna. The success led to a 2nd collaboration with De Ponte on the opera Don Giovanni. It premiered in 1787 and received high acclaim in Prague. Because of their complexity, these two are considered two of Mozart’s most important pieces. In 1787 Emperor Joseph II appointed Mozart as his chamber composer, while being a great honor it also was a way to keep Mozart in Vienna and prevent him from leaving. The position had a low pay and only allowed him to compose dances for the annual balls. The low income only further contributed to the financial troubles Mozart and family had been facing. To reduce living cost, Mozart moved his family to the suburbs of Alsergrund. Only it didn’t really help much. He began borrowing money from friends and traveling great distances to german speaking places that formerly loved him to try and revive his once great success.He grew out of his slump around 1790 and from 1790 to 1791 he had a period of music creativity, production and healing. A couple of his most admired works The Magic Flute, the final piano concerto in B-flat, the Clarinet Concerto in A major, and the unfinished Requiem came from this time. While his career and wealth increased, his health decreased. In 1791 while premiering the opera La Clemenza di Tito, he fell ill but then quickly recovered enough to be able to conduct the Prague premiere of The Magic Flute. This only led him to fall into a deeper illness in November. His wife and her sister quickly came to his aid to nurse him back to health. Mozart died on December 5th 1791 at age 35, his cause of death is unknown due to the fact that postmortem disease diagnosis wasn’t advanced. Officially is says he died of miliary fever. His funeral drew only a few mourners and he was placed in a common grave (Wolfgang)

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