Sampling the questionnaires by myself. 2.3 Correlation

Sampling is a process of choosing
an amount of people to represent the large group of people from which they are
chosen. There are two main types of sampling method, which is probability
samples and non-probability samples. So, I am going to use one of the
probability sampling methods which is simple random sampling for quantitative
research. Simple random sampling is the basic technique where randomly select a
group of people as sample out from a large population. Each person that chosen
is completely by chance and everyone has the same equal chance of being choose.

Table 3

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According to the table for
determining sample size from a given population (Krejcie and Morgan,1970), the
sample size that I should be taken is 384. According to Hair et al (1998), the
minimum sample size is 10: 1 ratio to study the independent varaibles. In this research,
ten-to-one ratio will be applied and minimum 40 respondents are needed for this
reserach. But due to limitation of time and prevent to receive incomplete questionnaires
from respondents, I can only able to take 50 sample size in a short time. Unit
of analysis of this research is individuals. Unit of analysis is the main
element that need to be analyse in every research. For instance, individuals
will be applied in this research cause each questionnaire only can complete by
1 person only. To collect primary data for this research, the data collection
method I have apply is structured questionnaires to distribute the
questionnaires by myself.




Correlation analysis is one method
that can be used to investigate the scope and nature relationship between two different
variables. The relationship that observed is in natural environment because
there is nothing to control the variables. The quality of straight relationship
between two numerical factors in a populace is controlled by the correlation
coefficient, p, whose range is – 1 to +1 (Wang, 2011). The correlation analysis
is effective when researcher wants to determine whether its positive
relationship between two variables. For example, age and body health. One of
the advantages of using correlation analysis is we able to collect more data
than doing experiment. We can use correlation analysis when the variable can be
measured but not manipulated. While one of the cons of using correlation
analysis is it can only be used when there are measureable variables. Causation
and effects are not determined by using correlation analysis. Besides that, in
using correlation analysis, it can show which variable affect the other
variables. For example, finding that young age with good body health doesn’t
support whether having good body health mean you are young while you are young
doesn’t mean you have a good body health.



            Validity is one of the key element for
the test quality. Validity defines a test that correctly measures what it
should be. There are two main types of validity test which is internal validity
test and external validity test. Nonetheless, internal validity means the
validity of the test itself while external validity test studies to the ability
to reach out to the target population. This two types of test are important in
investigating the relevance and effectiveness of research test. In addition,
there are few types of internal validity test too for example, face validity,
predictive validity, construct validity and concurrent validity.


Reliability test

test is an important element of test quality because there is no point to make
a test that will have different answers each time. The reliability test is
about the consistency of the research result or test over a period of time and
different respondents. For example, a personality test done by an individual
after several times of completing it, the answers still will be the same. Researches
must be able to carry out the exactly same experience in same condition and
produce the same outcomes. This can support the findings and ensure the results
are accepted. There are two types of reliability test, which is internal and
external. Internal reliability refers to the consistency of outcomes within the
internal reliability assessment test and make sure the item generates the same
or similar scores. External reliability refers to a measurement of the degree
of change between different uses. 

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