For my final topic I will discuss the concept of crime and also some of the early theories of criminal behavior. During the late 1700s and the early 1800s there were many theories about crime any why people committed acts of violence that were beginning to pop up and one of the ones that comes to mind is Phrenology (Schmalleger, 2017). Phrenology was a study on the shape of a person’s head and if they had certain characteristics they were believed to have certain attributes that could tell if they were fully developed as a person or if they were less developed. In ” phrenology, education, and the politics of human nature” Stephen Tomlinson states “…during its heyday, phrenology was a scientifically respectable theory of human nature (Tomlinson,1,1997). With this being said the person who thought up of this idea was Franz joseph gall he believed that physical characteristics would indicate their personality but it wasn’t until one of Franz students named Johann Spurzheim would bring the idea of phrenology to America in 1829 (Schamlleger, 2017). Given that there are many theories and concepts of crime I will talk about criminal families, somatotyping, and also the chromosome theory (Schmalleger, 2017). The criminal families idea was a belief that humans inherited some sort of mental degeneration that would cause these people to commit crime solely based on their families (schmalleger, 2017). One of the first people to bring this idea to the table was Richard dugdale and what he would do is use a family tree to determine if they had degeneration somewhere along the line in the family (Schmalleger, 2017). The underlying illusion that people who are feebleminded or degenerate used crime as an excuse for urges they might have had although a good idea these studies didn’t recognize how these people were brought up a child so they jumped the gun and believed that all of these people did crime (Schmalleger, 2017). The other type of theory was called somatotypes and what this did was categorize people’s body types into three main categories and in doing so gave them each a list of how these body types performed (Schmalleger, 2017). The three body types were mesomorphs, endomorphs, and ectomorphs the mesomorph is characterized as being alpha with more muscle and usually gets very aggressive. The endomorph is characterized as being more on the hefty side while having shorter body parts and also having a nice personality. Finnaly the ectomorph is characterized as being small thin and fragile and is also very shy and keeps to themselves (Schmalleger, 2017).