Thus, vigorous individuals while
performing their tasks in a given environment even in a difficult phase of time
had high level of mental resilience and energy (Schaufeli et al., 2002a;
2). Dedication: Dedication is being often recognized as the
emotional side of work engagement, and when an individual do something
meaningful and their willingness to spend considerable time and effort in that
work is referred to as dedication (Schaufeli et al.,
2002a; 2002b). It is defined as an intense work
involvement and comprehends feeling of self-respect and personal worth, pride,
enthusiasm, significance and challenge. Also, it is being characterized by
thrived, enthusiastic and inspired individual whenever they have been
confronted with the work related challenges also they feel a sense of pride and
significance in relation to work done by them (Schaufeli
et al., 2002a; 2002b).
being promoted by job resources, as individual has enough resources to complete
the given task. It is also being conceptualized as having high level of
identification with their given job responsibilities (Schaufeli
& Bakker, 2001; Schaufeli et al., 2002b).
3). Absorption: Absorption which is the last variable of work
engagement is characterized as being totally focused on one’s work as the time
appears to pass quickly and one finds it increasingly hard to detach oneself
from work. In short, engaged employees work hard; they are passionate about
their work; and are fully plunged in their work activities (Bakker and Demerouti, (2008). Individuals when
finds difficult to detach themselves from their work responsibilities and with
full concentration gets deeply engrossed, allowing little interference from
outside is known as absorption of employees in their work (Schaufeli & Salanova, 2007). The cognitive element where individuals
while performing their task experiences high level of concentration and is
fully focussed while doing something meaningful which means that the individual
becomes so much involved in their work that for them time passes so quickly and
it becomes difficult for them to detach themselves from their work (Coetzer
& Rothmann, 2007). More active employees have an internal locus of control
and have a tendency to contribute fully to the organization and therefore they
appear to be more absorbed in their work (Csikszentmihalyi, Abuhamdeh, &
Nakamura, 2005; Schaufeli et al., 2002b). Absorbed employees have high efficacy
and are thus being so immersed in their work.
Types of Employees according to Work Engagement
Proposed Engagement Strategy
Such employees make high contribution and possess
high satisfaction. They often go the extra mile in order to contribute to
organizational goals and draw satisfaction from it. They are not inclined to
Their engagement needs to be sustained in the long
term. Organization must recognize their ability to influence and motivate
A critical group comprising of employees make medium
to high contribution and satisfaction. They are amongst the high performers
and are reasonably satisfied but may not have consistently high engagement.
Since they are highly employable, they are open to employment offers from
other organizations. They have a tendency to shift to any of the other
It is critical for organization to invest into the
engagement of such employees as they are good performers and are nearest to
the engaged segment.
Honeymooners and Hamsters
Medium to high satisfaction but low contribution. It
consists of two categories. The honeymooners are new to the organization.
This period lasts from 12 to 18 months. During this time, their satisfaction
is medium to high but they are yet to find out as to how they can contribute
fully. Hamsters are the long tenured employees who believe that they are
contribution but actually they are just ?spinning their wheels’, without
reaching anywhere or contributing to take the organization higher. Some might
even be ?curled up and hiding out’. They are less likely to leave the
They need inputs on objectives and expectations.
Feedback regarding current performance could be helpful. It should be a
priority to get them aligned and contributing as soon as possible.
Crash and Burn
Medium to high contribution but low satisfaction.
These employees are top producers but getting bitter due to personal
dissatisfaction. They are sometimes quite vocal about their dissent with
colleagues or even top management. They may leave, but may stop working hard.
They need coaching and support. Recognition of their
efforts can be instrumental in changing their attitude.
Low to medium contribution and satisfaction. Mostly
cynical about any organizational initiative or communication. They tend to
spread their negativity. However they did not start out at this level but
ended up being the most disconnected from organizational priorities as they
feel that they did not get want they wanted from work.
They need to be very clearly told about expectations
and be given an opportunity to meet. If they still fail to respond
appropriately their exit from the organization will have to be planned.
Source: HR Anexi and Blessing White.
(2008). The Employee Engagement Equation in India. Business World.
The Gallup Model differentiated between
three types of employees (Crabtree, 2005):
1. Engaged employees: “an employee
who works with passion and feels a profound connection to their company.”
2. Not-engaged: “employees who are essentially
“checked out,” sleepwalking through their workday, putting time—but not energy or
passion –into their work”
3. Actively disengaged: “employees
aren’t just unhappy at work; they are busy acting out their unhappiness”.
of Work Engagement:
Literature shows that there are two resources that drive work engagement- job
resources and personal resources:
Resources: Job Resources
is considered as one of the important factor that contributes towards work
engagement. Job resources refer to those “physical, social or organizational
aspects of the job that may (a) reduce job demands and the associated
physiological and psychological costs; (b) be functional in achieving work
goals; or (c) stimulate personal growth, learning, and development” Schaufeli
& Bakker, (2004). Job resources like social support, skill variety and feedback
are presumed to play an intrinsic motivational role as it helped in fostering
the growth of employees, their learning and their development or may be an
extrinsic motivational role as they are subservient in achieving work goals.
Relatedness, competence and autonomy which are
considered as the basic and self-esteem human needs can be fulfilled through
job resources (Van den Broeck et al., 2008)21