Periodontitis recurrent aphthous stomatitis ,glossitis, taste degeneration

Periodontitis
is a prevalent multifactorial inflammatory condition characterised by loss of
supporting periodontium and aggressive destruction of gingival tissues. Factors
affecting periodontal health are malnutrition, oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic
factors, systemic health, and nutrition etc. It is caused when host resistance
is reduced and the virulence factor of an organism is increased resulting in
periodontitis.

 

Deficiency of
vitamins cause periodontal destruction, though the exact mechanism is still
unknown. Vitamin deficiency may affect any of the basic periodontal defence
factors such as the integrity of the dentogingival barrier and the turnover of
its constituent cells. Therefore, nutritional imbalance throughout the life
cycle can impair healing and tissue regeneration leading to increase susceptibility
to oral infections .The B-complex vitamins are involved cell metabolism, repair
and regeneration. They are quintessential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
Cobalamin
reduces ribonucleotides as it acts as a hydrogen-acceptorco-enzyme. Therefore
it has a pivotal role in growth and marrow haemopoiesis.This makes them
essential for the production of new cells for tissue formation and maintenance.

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 The most common oral symptoms found in Vit B12
deficiency is Glossitis ( Inflammation of tongue) and Glossalgia (A burning or painful sensation in the tongue. Also called glossodynia).
Classical ‘ beefy red tongue’ is also found .Deficiency occurs
due to  loss of the integrity of the oral
mucosa. The oral manifestations include pale mucosa, atrophic tongue ,
eryethematous patches on labial or buccal mucosa , psuedomembranous or  erythematous  candidiasis, angular cheilitis, recurrent
aphthous stomatitis ,glossitis, taste degeneration and a burning mouth..

 

Vitamin B 12  found as cobalamin is not derived from
plants or animals, they are  produced by
small microorganisms like yeast, fungi and molds. They have various synonyms
like cobrynamide, cobamide, cyanocobalamin, cobinamide, aquocobalamin,
cobalamin, , hydroxcobalamin, and nitrotocobalamin. This vitamin requires a
substance called ‘ Intrinsic factor’ for its entry into the Gastro – Intestinal
Tract . IF is an unique protein ( glycoprotein) secreted by parietal cells of
gastric mucosa  which helps in the
absorption of VitB12 in distal part of ileum and facilitates its transport
across stomach and the intestines. Malabsorption in the intestines is often the
main cause for the deficiency of this vitamin. B12 is often inadequately absorbed
in deficiency of intestinal transport proteins of cobalamin or because of
impaired production of Intrinsic factor in conditions like pernicious anaemia,
gastrectomy or gastrointestinal diseases.

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