Body image, which in other words, is

Body image may be construed as a multidimensional construct that represents an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior with regard to his/her own physical attributes (Muth & Cash, 1997). Muth and Cash (1997) conceptualized body image in two self-evaluative ways: positive or negative body image, which in other words, is satisfaction or dissatisfaction with physical attributes. Body shape and weight are critical determinants of self-esteem in adolescence because interpersonal success is increasingly seen as being closely linked to physical attractiveness (Koyuncu, et al., 2010). Even though body image has been found to influence psychological well-being in different phases of life, this relationship is strongest during adolescence (Carroll, et al., 1999).Appearance Evaluation Appearance evaluation is a construct that represents overall feelings of physical attractiveness or unattractiveness (Cash, 2000). It is a body image measure that generally shows gender difference as men are typically reported to have more positive body evaluation than women (Miller, et al., 2000). Cultural emphasis on ideal body image for women may be accountable for this less positive evaluation of their bodies. Although ideal body image for women varies across different cultures; for example, Western culture favors thin and slender body type while Indian and Arabic cultures favors larger body type (Bakhshi), cultural stresses for an ideal body image, especially with modern technology and common use of social media, place a larger emphasis on women than men. Taking , for example, how beauty trends for an ideal body have frequently changed, imposing more and more standards for women body. Just in recent years, trends vary from the belly button challenge – women trying to reach their arm behind their back and around to touch their belly button – or the thigh gap test – the distance between thighs when women standing with their feet together – to the bikini bridge challenge – women should have space between their bathing suit bottom and hip bones when lying down. Those tests are praised as “a test of health and fitness” with successful attempts are  met with praise and affirmation (Hamblin, 2015). However, in fact, they are not  results of any scientific studies and hence, do not have any relation to health and fitness at all. They are just ideas that society imposes on women: women should have thin thigh, slim waist as a sign of fitness. With social media, more and more of these beauty trends come to life and practice themselves in a form that only increases body shame and eating disorder (Hamblin, 2015). Moreover, men, too, are subjected to these beauty trends: men are expected to appear masculine. The six-pack abs challenge (men should have six-pack abs) has been very influential as more men pose picture of their abs on social media as a prove of their masculinity. As men’s beauty trend has been very stable compared to women’s, they also show how the cultural stress is different between men and women.Body Satisfaction Body satisfaction is an aspect of positive body image, referring to people who have a positive view of their body and are attentive and caring for their body (Tylka, 2011). In multiple researches, body satisfaction are measured on a standardized scale while only a few research using open-ended question. The open-ended question research design allows a better overview of specific body features that are important to adolescents but might be missed out in the standardized measures. As appearance evaluation, previous researches also indicate gender differences in body satisfaction. In particular, men are found satisfied with their muscles build-up more than women as men favor muscular body physique. Some common body features that are reported to be favored  are eyes, lips, hair, face, and height. For example, European American women are reported to have greater satisfaction with their height, eyes, and faces than Asian American women (Mintz & Kashubeck, 1999). European American women are more satisfied with their hair than Asian American women (Koff, 2001), and that African American women are more satisfied with hair color, thickness, and length (but not texture) than European American women (Miller, 2000). The study specific goal is to examine gender difference in appearance evaluation and body satisfaction in Holy Trinity Episcopal Academy  students.

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