Y and the risk of abortion [13,27,28].

Y chromosome
polymorphisms have been preferentially seen in azoospermic and severe
oligospermic (Yqh+ and Yqh-). The variation in relative length of Y chromosome
is said to be associated with male infertility. Long Y chromosome has been seen
to be associated with an increased risk of fetal loss. However, another study
did not show any relationship between the size of Y chromosome and the risk of
abortion 13,27,28.

      Genest and Genest also reported that short
Y chromosome does not see to represent an increased risk of pregnancy loss. The
contribution of Y chromosome variants to cause infertility is still a
controversial topic and further studies are required to understand this. In our
study we found ‘Y’ chromosome variants in 5.5% in which all were with increased
hetrochromatin (‘Y’ qh+) 28,29

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      Polymorphisms of acrocentric chromosomes
of D and G-groups are found both in the normal population 5% and in infertile
men 6.1%. It is reported that higher frequencies of satellite variants have been
found in patients with reproductive failure and spontaneous abortions. Very
large satellites of acrocentrics have been reported in infertile males, but
other studies have not shown them as a risk factor of infertility 13,21,22.

this study, the difference between infertile males and control group was
significant (P0.05). 

conclusion, the occurrence of major chromosomal abnormalities (11.2%) in
infertile males in our study strongly suggests the genetic testing and
counseling of infertile couples prior to the use ICSI treatment for to minimize
the risk of propagation of chromosomal abnormalities into the next generation.
It should be mandatory and included in routine investigations of infertile men,
before using assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). 13,30.

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