Table part of the strategic direction of

Table
of ContentsAbbreviations
………………………………………………………………………… Summary
…………………………………………………………………………….. Introduction
………………………………………………………………………….. Historical advances
…………………………………………………………………. Lean Production
……………………………………………………………………… DMAIC …………………………………………………………………………………
Total Quality Management TQM
………………………………………………….. The Kaizen Benefits
…………………………………………………………………. The 5S
………………………………………………………………………………… VSM
…………………………………………………………………………………… What is SMED
……………………………………………………………………….. Technology Advancement
………………………………………………………….. Findings
………………………………………………………………………………. Conclusion
……………………………………………………………………………. Referencing and Bibliographies
…………………………………………………….         AbbreviationsBIT’s               Business Improvement TechniquesVSM               Value Stream Mapping DMAIC           Define Measure Analyse Improve ControlTIMWOOD     Transportation Inventory Motion Waiting Over-Procession
Over-Production Defects5S
                  Sort Set-in-order Shine
Standardize Sustain TQM                Total Quality Management  Summary In summary, the strengths of
the discussed Business Improvement Techniques (BIT’S) can support to improve a
number of community factors such as reducing waste, improving health and safety
within the workplace and bringing job satisfaction for employees, guiding the companies
to get better results. As mentioned in Kaizen a small step can make high levels
of improvement in business. For the figure, each diagram explains as stated.IntroductionThis research paper aims to
discuss all of aspects and an investigation into the concept of manufacturing
systems and processes. The Manufacturing Systems and Processes plays an
extremely important role in the engineering and manufacturing industry and forms
an integral part of the strategic direction of proactive, successful companies
(Harrison, 2017). It covers a very wide range of situations, right from Robot
controlled highly mechanized lines of production to some simple day to day
single operation activities. Manufacturing activities often indicates a
nation’s economic health. It is basically a complex process of transforming raw
inputs into useful products. Manufacturing covers very wide areas of inputs,
processes and products. It reaches out to the demands in production from
thousands of different varieties and types of goods. Many engineering
organisation are implementing and employing business improvement techniques
(BIT’s) to energise their progression and keep on competition ahead. Modern
Manufacturing is focusing on efficiency, quality, flexibility, lowest cost,
competition, speed, and even technology. Historical Advances The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ is stated that the rapid development of
industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th
centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery (English Oxford
Living Dictionaries, 2018). Since the industrial revolution occurring in
Britain it spread over the continent very gradually. It was first popularized
by the English economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883), to describe
Britain’s economic development from 1760 to 1840. Since Toynbee’s time the term
has been more broadly applied (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2018).
The first industrialist of the United States was Samuel Slater known as the
‘Father of the American Industrial Revolution’ who opened the first industrial
mill in the in 1790 with a design that borrowed heavily from a British model
(The Independent Hall Association, 2017). Since the industrial revolution
spreading all over the world many inventions were made. The inventions made the
work easier and brought the goods cheaper. For example, in 1700 it took four
days to travel from London to Manchester, by 1870, it took four hours
(Biography Online, 2017), now because of the industrial revolution result it
only takes 2h 10m by train (Trainline, 2018). Industrial revolution brought
many benefits to improve in education and health care, first government
regulations (the condition of industrial revolution encouraged governments to
pass laws on child labour and introduce first basic safety legislation) and for
many good ways. (Biography Online, 2017). As these inventions created new
manufacturing and industry, many people also moved away from farms into cities
(SoftSchool.com, 2018). It was a time of very rapid change in the world (SoftSchool.com,
2018). In 1913, Ford designed his
first moving assembly line, revolutionised the manufacturing processes of his
Ford Model T, which became the benchmark for the mass production method around
the world Ford Go Further, 2018. Ford’s aim was to produce an affordable
vehicle for the general public and produce the largest number of cars for the
lowest possible cost. He changed the manufacturing world. The Ford trademark
has been in regular use for more than 50 years.Ford moving assembly line Lean production The Japanese manufacturer Ohno
Taiichi of Toyota is the next major change in car manufacturing after Ford.
When he returned to Japan after visiting car manufacturers in the USA in the
1960s and developed a new method of manufacturing, which became known as lean
production. The term Lean means “manufacturing without waste.” Waste (“Muda” in
Japanese) has many forms such as time, idle equipment, material, inventory etc.
Most companies waste 70%-90% of their available resources. Even the Lean Manufacturers
probably waste 30% of their available resources (Strategos, 2018). This is
linked by McKinsey & Company (Mohr et al, 2018) that manufacturers could
reduce the amount of energy they use in production by 20 to 30 percent. They
could also design their products to reduce material use by 30 percent while
increasing their potential for recycling and reuse. However, one commentator
(Maurya, 2016, p.13) suggested that when applied to innovation, the problem
isn’t one of the finding waste, but rather prioritizing the biggest areas of
waste.Lean is a systematic method
for the elimination of waste within Manufacturing System. As the waste is in
everywhere the company must introduce the lean method to get better result for
the profit. Waste such as delays, activities, or materials that consume
resources but do not contribute value to the end result. Toyota identified the
existence of seven common forms of waste, which it constantly seeks to
eliminate. Taiichi Ohno, architect of the famed Toyota Production System,
believed that a firm’s production operations should progress smoothly without
disruption – a vision demanding the virtual elimination of waste (Ruffa, 2008).
The seven types of waste, also
known as TIMWOOD, are highlighted below in figure.

Transportation

Moving
materials and output unnecessary.

Inventory

Overproduction
resulting in too much stock.

Motion

Inappropriate
siting of teams or equipment.

Waiting

Equipment
failure, for example, which causes delays.

Over-Processing

Performing
unnecessary processing steps.

Over-Production

Producing
more stock or producing it earlier than needed.

Defects

Dealing
with rework.

 DMAICDMAIC (Define, Measure,
Analyse, Improve, and Control) provides the framework to improve existing
processes in a systematic way. In six sigma, DMAIC is used to improve existing
processes, but the framework is equally applicable to lean and, of course, Lean
Six Sigma (Morgan and Brenig-jones, 2009). The heart of the DMAIC is
highlighted below into the table.

Define

Understanding
what the problem is.

Measure

Going
through several steps to gain a better understanding of it.

Analyse

Working
down to the root causes.

Improve

Looking
at the various solution options and then choosing the most appropriate.

Control

Implementing
the solution and holding the gains.

 Macrofab (2018) agrees that
the DMAIC works to improve problem solving by providing structure to the task.
Due to the fact that it is data-driven, it’s easier to identify the appropriate
targets and root causes and to make sure that any implemented changes get
better results than the previous method.  Figure – DMAIC (ASQ, 2018)  Total Quality Management (TQM)”Total Quality Management
(TQM) is a management framework based on the belief that an organisation can
build long-term success by having all its members, from low-level workers to
its highest ranking executives, the TQM framework is initially applied to
companies in the manufacturing sector, but, over the decades, the organisations
in other have adopted it, as well.” (TechTarget, 2018) The objectives are to
eliminate waste and increase efficiencies by ensuring the product is done
right. The TQM focuses on quality improvement as well as the customer
satisfaction. What is the customer
satisfaction? A Study.com (2018) describes that the customer satisfaction
measures how well the expectations of a customer concerning a product or
service provided by the company have been met. This figure the Deming cycle,
also called PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) model There can be many current best
practices for the business improvement techniques (BIT’s), six sigma methodology
is one of the current best practices in manufacturing production. A statement
from the 6Sigma.us (6Sigma.us, 2018) shows that if an organization is not able
to deliver the product or service within the delivery date affecting their
production capacity and lead time or the organization looks for the continuous
process improvement to be competitive in the marketplace then the organization
should not face a problem to use Six Sigma methodology. The article also states
that if an organization already identifies the solution or aware of the action
plan for a problem then it is not considered as a Six Sigma project and the
implementation project certainly does not follow Six Sigma methodology
(6Sigma.us, 2018). Despite the Six Sigma
philosophy has a goal of total customer satisfaction, a surveyor called Ron
(Basu and Wright, 2003) found out that the main driver leading to the
application of Six Sigma to a company is cost saving rather than customer
satisfaction! Six Sigma identifies the sources of variation and prioritizes the
opportunities for improvement.  The Kaizen BenefitsThe term Kaizen is Japanese
for ‘a change for better’ which is resulting in ‘continuous improvement.’ Ruffa
(2008) stated that what kaizen is, in facilitated events, employees review work
procedures, equipment location, and other activities, identifying ways in which
flow might be streamlined. The end result might be changed procedures, relocated
equipment, or redesigned work – each helping to slash machine down time in
producing items across a product family.Kaizen philosophy is more
about humanizing the workforce. It improves the capital projects process, but
the real power of Kaizen is in on-going the process of continually making small
improvements that improve processes and reduce waste. Pandey (2018) points out
the Kaizen benefits in the presentation that Kaizen is not focusing on large
scale improvements, it focuses on creative investment that continually solve
large numbers of small problems. “Under lean maintenance, kaizen events can be
used to improve equipment reliability and maintenance service. Any system,
equipment, or machine that chronically causes production disruptions or produces
excessive scrap, rework, or defects are good candidates for Kaizen studies.”
(Aikens, 2011)Kaizen emphasizes small
continuous improvements in current processes while innovation is drastic
improvements in current processes. In comparison, kaizen achieves high
performance levels at no or marginal cost while innovation needs heavy
investment.The figure shows the
kaizen-continuous improvement comparing to the tools. The 5SIf the company is planning on
adopting kaizen strategies, it needs to follow the five principles that lead to
a successful implementation, the ‘5S’. The term ‘5S’ derives from the Japanese
word that translate to sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. A
website called ( www.talk-business.co.uk ,2018)
believes that the kaizen is not possible without the ‘5S’. According to the
Talk Business Magazine (2018), the term ‘5S’ can be explained in the below:

Sort

Sorting
and separating what is not needed, such as removing obstacles to make work
easier and preventing the accumulation of unwanted items.

Set
in order

Arranging
items that are needed so that they’re ready to use, which will make the
workflow easier.

Shine

Includes
preventing machinery and equipment from deteriorating and keeping the
workplace safe and clean.

Standardize

Maintaining
high standards in the workplace and ensuring that all processes have a
standard.

Sustain

Keeping
the rules and performing proper training in the workplace, as well as regular
audits.

 What is the aim of the 5S? As
mentioned the term 5S is originated from Japan after World War II. The aim of
the 5S is to keep workplace clean and tidy. The 5S methodology cleanliness is
very important for the Health and Safety. By applying the 5S methodology in the
workstation the company has less transportation, better health and safety
record, and more satisfaction. It is also aiming to make work space for the
efficiency and effectiveness. The real objectives of a 5S
programme should be;Ø  To
reduce wasteØ  To reduce
variationØ  To
improve productivity.5S programme that work well
are in situations where the need to achieve these three is well known and 5S is
seen as the way to do it. Experts and investigators will state that there are a
million ways of improving business, however, there are only a few ways of
implementing these ways. One of the most common ways of continuously improving the
business itself is applying the 5S of business (5S News, 2018). 5S is one of
the tools to make improvement for the company.The above figure shows the
recycle of the continuous business improvement  VSMValue Stream Mapping (VSM) is
a lean manufacturing or lean enterprise technique used to document, analyse and
improve the flow of information or materials required to produce a product or
service for a customer (iSixSigma, 2018). However (Bicheno and Holweg 2009, p.
50 and p.94) suggest that not to think about the physical flow, but to think
about the Marketing, Human Resources, and Financial Maps. The authors further
discuss in the book that Mapping is the ‘Meta Tool’ in the Lean Toolbox because
the mapping tools should guide the use of all other tools. In addition key benefit is
that it helps to find the bottlenecks, giving you a great overall picture of
the process, providing a form of visual communication, helping you to identify
waste, making it easier to make improvement to the business as makes it easy to
visually identify where the waste is and how to deal with it or improve it. The
value stream map allows for calculated experimentation in certain parts of the
process, without endangering the flow of the rest of the business (buzfluent,
2018). This diagram explains the
calculation of cycle time and changeover time.The VSM is a very powerful and
great tool for idea generation, created by the lean production movement for
redesigning the productive systems. However, the E-Journal called Business
Process Management Journal (2018) believes that there is a need to see how it
is put into practice, that is to analyse the level in which theory can adapt to
real practice, the strengths, weaknesses and the key aspects to be taken into
account by the applicant teams to obtain the highest performance of the VSM.  What is SMED?SMED Single-Minute Exchange
of Dies is a system for dramatically reducing the time it takes to complete
equipment changeovers. The essence of the SMED system is to convert as many
changeover steps as possible to ‘external’ and to simplify and streamline the
remaining steps (Lean Production, 2017). The authors (Bicheno and Holweg, 2009,
p.156) suggested that very quick SMED changeovers can be a huge benefit for
flexibility – even if there is sufficient time to take longer for a changeover.
The name SMED comes from the goal of reducing changeover times to the ‘single’
digits (i.e. less than 10 minute).  The SMED system has three
major phases. The figure demonstrates that these phases are performed in
sequence and the entire sequence can be iterated.  Technology advancementIn 20th Century,
most of the companies or organisations kept their files or documents on the
paper. But today, because of the technology advancement the company or
organisation doesn’t need to keep paper ledgers, files or documents for the
data records any more. Software which can run on a modest computer organizes
all the data records and display the profit percentages and even tax
liabilities. Many of the modern business tasks can be handled by advanced
technology. Other technology advances allow employees to work from home,
delivering work electronically while avoiding losing time to commuting. The
meetings with people from many geographic locations can be held by online
through video conferencing. This is much more efficient than paying for travel
for each attendee and spending two days on a meeting that can be concluded in an
hour electronically (Johnston, 2018).  FindingsTo the current best practice
in business improvement, the company or organisation has to focus in finding a
compelling reason for change such as dissatisfaction, desire, determination and
discipline. It also has to involve on its business developing new habits,
committing to self-improvement, creating a clear or focused vision, taking
control of calendar by making plan ahead and blocking out importing (not urgent)
activities, keeping it real as every practice needs improvement. As research result some tools
and techniques are powerful and useful with the high levels improvement for the
business, but some may be remained with the low improvements. ConclusionThe purpose of this study is
to investigate the usage, awareness, perceived effectiveness and potential
future use of improvement tools and techniques, improving between public and
private sector organisations, and between manufacturers and service
organisations. Referencing & BibliographiesAikens, C.H (2011). Quality Inspired Management The Key to
Sustainability. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.ASQ (2018). The Define Measure Analyse Improve Control
(DMAIC) Process Internet. Available at: < http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/six-sigma/overview/dmaic.html >
Accessed: 10 January 2018. Basu, R., Wright, J.N (2003). Quality Beyond Six Sigma. Oxford:
Butterworth Heinemann.Bicheno, J and Holweg, M
(2009). The Lean Toolbox. 4th
ed. United Kingdom; Picsie Books.Biography Online (2017). Facts about the Industrial Revolution
Internet. Available at: < https://www.biographyonline.net/facts-about-the-industrial-revolution/>
Accessed: 10 January 2018.Brainy Quote (2018). Winston Churchill Quotes Internet.
Available at:
Accessed: 8 January 2018.Business Process Management
Journal (2018). Internet 9 (1). Available at; http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/14637150810849391
Accessed; 11 January 2018. Buzfluent (2018). What Are the
Benefits of Value Stream Mapping. Internet. Available a; https://bizfluent.com/list-6624878-benefits-value-stream-mapping-.html
Accessed; 10 January 2018.English Oxford Living
Dictionaries (2018). Industrial
Revolution Internet. Available at: < https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/industrial_revolution >
Accessed: 9 January 2018. Ford Go Further 2018. The
Henry Ford story Internet. Available at; https://www.ford.co.uk/experience-ford/history-and-heritage#assemblyline
Accessed; 12 January 2018.Harrison, D (2017). TM613 Manufacturing Systems and Processes.
Newcastle: Newcastle College Group. Johnston, K. (2018). Business Advancements That Increase Productivity & Efficiency Internet. Available at: Accessed: 8 January 2018. Lean Production (2017). SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Dies) Internet.
Available at: < https://www.leanproduction.com/smed.html > Accessed; 11 January 2018. Macrofab (2018). Top Lean Manufacturing Tools and Techniques Explained
Internet. Available at: Accessed: 10 January 2018. Maurya, A (2016). Scaling Lean Mastering the Key Metrics for Startup
Growth. Great Britain: Portfolio Penguin. Mohr et al, (2018). Manufacturing resource productivity Internet.
Available at: Accessed: 9 January 2018.Ruffa, Stephen A, (2008). Going Lean. New York: American
Management Association.SoftSchool.com, (2018). Industrial Revolution Internet.
Available at: Accessed: 9 January 2018. SixSigma.us (2018). Best Practices of Using Six Sigma DMAIC.
Internet. Available at: Accessed: 10 January 2018. Study.com (2018). What is Customer Satisfaction? – Definition &
Examples Internet. Available at: < https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-customer-satisfaction-definition-examples-quiz.html > Accessed: 12 January 2018.Talk Business Magazine (2018). The advantages and disadvantages of
kaizen to business Internet. Available at: < https://www.talk-business.co.uk/2016/06/21/advantages-disadvantages-kaizen-business/ > Accessed: 10 January. TechTarget (2018). Total Quality Management (TQM) Internet. Available
at: Accessed: 12 January.The Independent Hall
Association, (2017). Economic Growth and
the Early Industrial Revolution Internet. Available at:
Accessed: 9 January 2018. iSixSigma (2018). Value Stream Mapping Internet.
Available at:
Accessed: 10 January 2018. 5S News (2018). Defining the 5S Principles in a Workplace
Internet. Available at: < https://www.5snews.com/defining-the-5s-principles-in-a-workplace/ >
Accessed: 11 January 2018.  Good websitehttp://www.strategosinc.com/just_in_time.htmTools and Techniqueshttps://macrofab.com/lean-manufacturing-tools/ 

According to one of the very
famous leaders Winston Churchill (Brainy Quote, 2018), ‘To improve is to
change; to be perfect is to change often’ encourages that if the company needs
to improve in business it has to change something to get better result in it.
It might be its routines, habits, transportations, or products.

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