CHAPTER web server and a mobile device.



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2.1 Introduction

This chapter gives the review of the work from other researchers that were related to this project which is “Smart home automation. This chapter is crucial to make this project developed successfully. Studying the work from other researchers will enable us to identify key features such as advantages, weakness, block diagrams and other important things and this certainly helps to improve the quality of the project.

2.2 Related Study

There are many smart home systems have been studied and developed by researchers in recent years. These projects aimed to be low cost and effective in performance wise. A few journals will be discussed on to identify the methods used to do those projects. Every journal has its own advantage and disadvantages. For example 4 5 6 7 8. Furthermore, the advantages of this smart home system is compared to other monitoring systems are also discussed.

2.2.1 An Android Based Home Automation System

This research paper says about “An Android Based Home Automation System”4. In this home automation system the researcher says that in this home automation system many users can control the home appliances by Android application or via a website. The system has three main hardware parts: A device will send signals to home electrical appliances such as fan & lights, a web server which will store the data of users and a smartphone running through Android application. To allow communication between the devices, cloud platforms and Google services were used. The complete infrastructure design diagram of this system is shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1 : Infrastructure design of the proposed system.

This home automation system mainly have three main components which is local hardware, web server and a mobile device. The local hardware has MX53 card and devices which connected to local network to connect home appliances. The web server which includes GCM service will connect the hardware and mobile devices. So, this GCM platform certainly plays important role in communication between web server and local devices. The web server enables the user to record and store the data in the database of the system. Mobile device is also one of the main component in this system. The mobile device running Android operating system enables the user to monitor and control environment in the house through the web server.

This research paper concludes a brilliant home automation system using GCM platform and Android operating system which has huge scope in future. The functions of the three main components in this system are well explained. This type of design and GCM service to provide data through the platform gives this system an additional advantage compared to other design in terms of cost. The implementation of this prototype is evaluated for analysis so that it is acceptable by users for this system. The overall result shows that, this proposed system is satisfactory and acceptable for implementation. The evaluation result after tested by many users is summarized in the table 1 below.
































Table 1  The evaluation result of the proposed system




2.2.2 Low Cost Arduino/Android-Based Energy Efficient Home Automation System with Smart Task Scheduling.

This research paper is obtained from a journal titled “Low Cost Arduino/Android-Based Energy Efficient Home Automation System with Smart Task Scheduling”5. In this paper, the researcher explains about the techniques and design of the system. This home automation system can be controlled remotely, consumes less energy, provides comfort and security. Furthermore, this system is connected to home network to get information from the sensors and control the home appliances. Arduino used as a central microcontroller which communicates with Android mobile phones. The network system consists of both wireless and wired technology which uses ZigBee and X10 and so it cost less. The sensors involved can be programmed or scheduled so that it can be triggered whenever user need. This definitely plays important role in reducing energy consumed by the electrical appliances. Figure 2 shows that infrastructure design of this system.


Figure 2 : Infrastructure design of the system




Arduino acts as main controller in this system. The Arduino will receive the commands from the user to execute. The controller doesn’t have internet connectivity so an Ethernet Shield will be mounted on the Arduino. Wireless communication can be attained through the Ethernet Shield where the user the can be able to access the microcontroller remotely through internet. In this project, the client-server architecture is the choice because the microcontroller acts as a body for mobile phone and PC. Besides that, the server’s help also needed as this automation system is operated from a web server that communicates via HTTP protocol.


Furthermore, in this system wired(x10) and wireless(ZigBee) technologies were used for automation plan. Thus, this makes it the system more flexible and can be used for high scale project. So, this system not only suit for houses but also for industry. Mobile phone is a part of the automation technology as it makes the user to control the house appliances remotely. This certainly reduces power consumption and electricity bill. Figure shows the fully functional block diagram of this system. The diagram explains that Arduino is connected to local network where the user can control house appliances remotely. Besides that, the user also can store the data in SD card.



















Figure: Block Diagram of the system

2.2.3 Design and Implementation of a low cost Arduino-based Smart Home System

This research paper is obtained from a journal titled “Design and Implementation of a low cost Android-Based Smart Home System”6. This paper discusses to build a low cost smart home that will control home appliances based on the data attained from different sensors. The main purpose of this project is to make users to have a more convenient and comfortable lifestyle. The design focuses more on energy efficiency and user friendly. Besides that, this system also can help elderly and handicapped people. Figure shows the block diagram of the designed system















Figure: Block diagram of the design


This system has a voice recognition system. That means switching lights and controlling other home appliances can controlled via the voice of user. Besides that, controlling these appliances need information of sensors. So, the readings of the sensors need to be monitored carefully. In this automation system different types of sensors has been used which is flame sensor, temperature and humidity sensor, motion sensor and gas sensor. Wi-Fi is the central access point which acts as a bridge between Arduino and the sensors. Users also can use the Wi-Fi communication to control the Arduino. Besides hardware, software like Arduino IDE and Android Software Development Kit also used in developing this prototype. The proposed system is tested thoroughly so that can produce a error-less automation system. After the testing, it was found that the voice recognition module can recognize the user’s voice and receive the command without any delay. The command from user will be received by sensors. The sensors will send the data to Arduino and the user can view it through web server. So, it was a successful project and can be implemented. The result of the testing is shown in table.








Table : Result of testing the automation system


Although the system was successfully done, there are few improvements can be made to improve the project. There are a fingerprint authentication can be added to improve security in the house. Second, usage solar panel can be boost for this system as it can power the automation system. Furthermore, an alert system through email or SMS can be implemented to alert the user.





2.2.4 Voice Activated Smart Home Design and Implementation

This research paper is obtained from a journal titled “Voice Activated Smart Home Design and Implementation”7. In this paper, the researcher explains about the concept and design of his system. This paper discusses about a smart home automation system using Raspberry pi. The system can be operated through the microcontroller which will control household appliances. Besides that, this system also can improve security of a house. Furthermore, the user can use Telegram and voice service to control the system. Figure shows the block diagram of the system.














Figure: Block diagram of the design


This proposed system uses the Amazon service which helps to capture voice command of a user and process them. The main components used in this system are a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, Sensors, Telegram app, Reverb app, Alexa Skill kits and Ngrok service. The user’s command will be sent to Raspberry Pi web server. After the receiving command, Raspberry Pi will process and execute the output through GPIO pins. So, the user can control the system through Telegram app where sending text is allowed, Amazon Reverb app for the user to control and microphone in Raspberry Pi. This system needs to be tested multiple times so that can avoid any errors and malfunction. Besides that, it also can produce a system even better than this. After several times of testing, this smart home automation function well and met the objectives. The system can respond to the user’s command and the result can be seen in Raspberry Pi web server within few seconds. Furthermore, the received voice command is loud and crystal clear. Telegram and Reverb also communicates with this system perfectly. Figure shows the results of request and response in the system.


Figure: Request and Response test result


Sooner or later, this smart home system can be useful to everybody with enhancement of Google Home and Amazon Echo. Besides that, this system also can be added with several automated system according to an individual’s personal needs. Having Alexa Skill Kits and a microcomputer, makes it easy to control the appliances from everywhere without a direct communication with them. On the other hand, this system also can be upgraded so that it will help elderly people, school children and so on.


2.2.5 Low Cost Implementation of Smart Home Automation

This research paper is obtained from a journal titled “Low Cost Implementation Of Smart Home Automation”8. In this home automation system, the researcher used ESP8266 board as the central microcontroller. This chip board has a built in wireless connectivity. Like other home automation system, this system also can control home appliances such as lights, fan, air-cond and so on. To control those power outlets remotely, the board needs to connect with a relay. ESP8266 also known as NodeMCU has wireless connectivity and so the details of the Wi-Fi need to be programmed and uploaded in the board. An android App is designed to make it easier for the user. The Android app can be used to control household appliances using buttons and using voice commands. This system is considered as low cost and scalable which can be implemented at home, school, or industry. Figure shows the block diagram of the system.























Figure : Block diagram of the system


The proposed system has a Wi-Fi enabled microcontroller which is ESP8266. SPDT relay is a must to be connected with the microcontroller. Now all the home appliances will be connected to the SPDT relay. The ESP8266 microcontroller and the relay will be powered up by 230V power supply. A web server will be designed so that the user can control the microcontroller pins remotely. In the web server, there will be two options which is used to control the appliances. There are: buttons to click ON/OFF the appliances and a voice command to turn ON/OFF using user’s voice. The same thing applied in an Android app. The web server can be accessed by IP address of the microcontroller. Figure shows the web server address and status of home appliances























Figure : Web server address and status of home appliances


So, this system can be used in school, house, office or industry because everyone love to switch ON/OFF the appliances from one place. Beside, nowadays everyone have a smart phone which is an advantage to use this system because home appliances can be controlled through an android app. Moreover, this system also can be controlled through voice command. The microcontroller is a low cost, consumes less power compared to other microcontrollers and has a built in wireless connectivity. Overall, this is a good home automation system but there are several suggestions to improve this project. This project can be developed to monitor the environment of the house. So, few sensors are suggested to install in it.



2.2.6 Arduino and Raspberry Pi Based Smart Communication and Control of Home Appliance System

This research paper is obtained from a journal titled “Arduino and Raspberry Pi Based Smart Communication and Control of Home Appliance System”9. In this paper, the researcher tells about the system which can control electrical appliances remotely using a low cost, user-friendly and easy installation system. This system can help handicapped and elderly people. Besides that, this automation system can make user to reduce the electricity bill because this system can reduce power consumption. Figure shows the block diagram of the system.

Figure : Block diagram of the system


The proposed system has two controllers which Raspberry Pi 2 Model B and Arduino Mega 2560 with other related devices. The block diagram in Figure shows interconnection between devices to microcontrollers. Arduino has a job to process the signal from the hall effect sensor, touch screen and push buttons. The output will be shown in the LCD display and touch screen. The processed signal from the sensor will be sent to Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi will process the input from Raspberry Camera which detect the image and voice a person. Besides that, it also reads push button and microphone input and process them. The code for the project and hardware are written using C­++ and Phyton language. Figure shows the layout design of the system.










Figure: Layout design of the system







2.3 Summary of Literature Review






An android based home automation system

–          Home automation where all the appliances and MX53 card are connected to local network. The user can control the appliances through web server by using GCM communication service.

–          MX53 card, GCM service, web server, mobile device.


Low cost Arduino/Android based energy efficient home automation system with smart task scheduling

–          Home automation that uses wired and wireless communication for automation.
–          Arduino will send the sensors data to the web server.
–          User can control the Arduino remotely from web server and mobile phones.

–          Arduino, Arduino IDE, ZigBee, X10 wired, sensors,


Design and implementation of a low cost Arduino based smart home system

–       Home automation system that can control home appliances using voice of the user.

–          Arduino IDE, Arduino Mega, Gas sensor, Infrared module, Rain sensor, Flame sensor, Temperature and Humidity Sensor, LDR, Android Software Development Kit, Wi-Fi router.


Voice activated smart home design and implementation

–          A system which can control home appliances through voice of a user.
–          Voice command from user will be captured and sent to Raspberry Pi web server.

–          Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, Sensors, Telegram app, Reverb app, Alexa skill kit,  Ngrok Service, Amazon service.


Low cost implementation of smart home automation

–          A system that can control household appliances remotely using web server and android app.
–          Web server & Android app has buttons and voice commands to control the appliances.

–          ESP8266 NodeMCU, Arduino IDE, Relay, Web Server, Android App.


Arduino and Raspberry pi based smart communication and control of home appliance system

–          An automation system that uses two microcontrollers to control home appliances.
–          Data from sensors, and push buttons will be processed by Arduino sent to Raspberry Pi.
–          Raspberry Pi will process  the data from Raspberry Pi camera and data from Arduino.
–          Raspberry Pi also will store the image and voice of a person.

–          Arduino, Raspberry Pi, hall effect sensor, push buttons, relay, LCD display, touch screen, Arduino IDE


2.4 Conclusion

This chapter discussed about the existing project that was done by other people around the world. It discussed about the system which consists of microcontroller, sensors, hardware, software and wired/wireless communication that was used to build the projects. Besides that, it also discussed about the future works that can be done to improve the projects even more.









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