p.p1 shows how mud sample pH levels

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 11.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 13.0px}
p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 18.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 22.0px}
p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 22.0px Cambria; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 22.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p5 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 22.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p6 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 18.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p7 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p8 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 13.0px}
p.p9 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 36.0px; font: 14.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 17.0px}
p.p10 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p11 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 17.0px}
p.p12 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 36.0px; font: 14.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 17.0px}
p.p13 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 17.0px}
p.p14 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 36.0px; font: 18.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 22.0px}
li.li7 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
li.li15 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; font: 16.0px Calibri; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
span.s1 {font-kerning: none}
span.s2 {font: 14.0px Cambria; font-kerning: none}
span.s3 {font: 12.0px Helvetica}
span.s4 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}
span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre}
ol.ol1 {list-style-type: upper-alpha}
ol.ol2 {list-style-type: decimal}

 

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
COVENANT UNIVERSITY, CANNANLAND OTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.
PET327: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY
            EXPERIMENT IV: HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION
GROUP D
                        OJO FAITH OGHENEMUZAKPEME
15CN03260
DATE PERFORMED: 26-01-2018
DATE SUBMITTED: 28-01-2018

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

ABSTRACT
pH is very important mud property because the optimum control of some mud systems is based on their pH, as in the detection and treartment of certain mud contaminants. The experiments shows how mud sample pH levels are determined in the laboratory, the different methods in which pH can be calculated, the procedures used in determining the pH value using the colorimetric method of pH determination, how colours are formed on the pH paper and how the reading are taken from the standard pH chart.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Content page 

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………2
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………4
APPARTUS……………………….………………………………………………………….5
PROCEDURES……………………………………………………………………………….6-7
PRECAUTIONS …………………………….…………………………………………………8
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ………………………………………………………….9
CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………………10
REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………………..11

INTRODUCTION
The pH of a drilling fluid may be defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion(H+) concentration. At any particular hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, there is a corresponding hydroxyl ion(OH-) concentration which will result in equilibrium. The hydrogen ion represents the acidic portion and the hydroxyl ion the alkaline or the basic portion of the solution. The pH of a drilling fluid is determined either by the colorimetric method or electrometric method.

Colorimetric method : This methods utilizes chemically-treated pHydrion paper which is placed on the fluid’s surface until a color change is noted.
Electrometric method: This procedure employs a pH meter with a glass electrode . although more accurate than pHydrion paper, it is quite sensitive to shock and difficult to maintain under field conditions.  

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

Measuring cylinder
Universal pH paper
pH meter
Cylindrical beaker
Electric mixer
Weighing balance
spatula

PROCEDURE
COLORIMETRIC METHOD (PH PAPER)
SAMPLE 1

I carefully weighed 35g of bentonite on the weighing balance and set it aside for mixing.
I added the 35g of bentonite to 350ml of water to be mixed by an electric mixer in a mud cup.
I mixed the mud until smooth and without any presence of lumps and air bubbles.
I poured the mud slurry into a small cylindrical beaker.
A strip of pH paper was taken, to be placed on the surface of the mud .
The pH value was observed and then read on the pH chart.

ELECTROMETRIC METHOD (pH METER)

I turned on the PH meter.
I pushed the pH /mV key until the annunciators indicate the desired mode
I adjusted the temperature of the machine.
I rinsed the probe and cleaned it until dry before dipping it into the mud sample.
I left the probe in the sample for 1-2 minute for the reading to stabilize. 

SAMPLE 2
COLOURMETRIC METHOD (pH PAPER)

I added 3g of Cacl (calciumchloride) salt to the mud in sample 1 to be mixed.
I repeated the sample procedures in sample 1 from procedure 2-6.

ELECTROMETRIC METHOD (PH METER)

I added 3g of CaCl salt to the mud in sample 1 to be mixed.
I repeated the sample procedures in sample 1 from procedure 1-5.

PRECAUTIONS

I ensured I did not stick the pH paper into the fluid sample.
I ensured I never let the probe tip become dry.
I ensured that the electrode was always covered with the cap when not in use.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
 

DISCUSSION
 The result of the experiment carried out has been presented in the table above. Sample 1 gave a pH reading of 9 on the pH paper but gave an accurate reading of 9.01 on the pH meter which makes it alkaline and therefore suitable for drilling. Sample 2 gave a pH reading of 7 on the pH paper but gave an accurate reading of 7.30 on the pH meter. This shows the effect of salt contamination in the pH of drilling muds.

CONCULSIONS
This experiments shows the need for checking the pH value of the mud.Salts contaminate the pH of a drilling mud. When salt was added to the drilling mud its viscosity increased there by destroying the drilling mud. Therefore the pH of a drilling mud must always be checked in other to know the salt contents of the drilling mud.

REFERENCES

Petroleum engineering drilling mud manual by Engr. Seteyeobot Ifeanyi et al 
PET 315: drilling fluid technology note by Engr. Dr. E. E. Okoro
Baker Hughes-drilling fluids reference manual. 

Go Top
x

Hi!
I'm Eleanor!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out