COMMERCIAL is either pulled or pushed up

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

COMMERCIAL
ELEVATOR FOR EMERGANCY CASE

Romil
shah

California
Baptist University

ABSTRACT

 

This research is
based on recovery system for the power failure caused by electricity cut or any
other reason. Whenever there is power failure the elevator gets caught between
the floors. Main aim is to develop the mechanism which act during the power
failure and allow passengers to rescue themselves from inside of the elevator.
Researchers adding mechanism such that it generator the power itself and supply
the power when the electricity is cut out and designing project such that
elevator itself generate few amount of electricity, which can be used for move
the elevator from stop position of final position, so that people trapped in
the elevator can be easily escaped.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Today’s 21st century, time of
High-rise buildings Elevators are essential  but it becomes life-taking in a time of
sudden power failure, in last few decades many people loss there life by not
escaping from elevator in proper time, whereas by modification in elevator’s
design can save many life can be saved, Innovation and technology has played a
very important role in easing our life and this is one of them. “Dimensioning the counterweight based on traffic analysis is
one of the fastest and most cost-effective means of improving the energy
efficiency of lifts” Toni, T., Semen, U., & Matti, L.
(2017)

ELEVATOR

An
elevator is a transport device used to move goods or people vertically. In
British English and other Commonwealth English, elevators are known more
commonly as lifts, although the word elevator is familiar from American movies
and television shows.

HISTORY OF ELEVATOR

Elevators began as
simple rope or chain hoists. An elevator is essentially a platform that is
either pulled or pushed up by a mechanical means. A modern-day elevator
consists of a cab (also called a “cage” or “car”) mounted
on a platform within an enclosed space called a shaft or more correctly a hoist
way. In the past elevator drive mechanisms were powered by steam and water
hydraulic pistons.

During the middle
ages, the elevator operated by animal and human power or by water-driven
mechanisms. The elevator as we know it today was first developed during the
1800s and relied on steam or hydraulic plungers for lifting capability. In the
latter application, the cab was affixed to a hollow plunger that lowered into
an underground cylinder. Liquid, most commonly water, was injected into the
cylinder to create pressure and make the plunger elevate the cab, which would
simply lower by gravity as the water was removed. Valves governing the water
flow were manipulated by passengers using ropes running through the cab, a
system later enhanced with the incorporation of lever controls and pilot valves
to regulate cab speed. The granddaddy of today’s traction elevators first
appeared during the 19th century in the United Kingdom, a lift using a rope
running through a pulley and a counterweight tracking along the shaft wall.

In the 1800s, with
the advent of electricity, the electric motor was integrated into elevator
technology by German inventor “Werner von Siemens”. With the motor mounted at
the bottom of the cab, this design employed a gearing scheme to climb shaft
walls fitted with racks. By 1903, this design had evolved into the gearless
traction electric elevator, allowing hundred-plus story buildings to become
possible and forever changing the urban landscape. Multi-speed motors replaced
the original single-speed models to help with landing-leveling and smoother
overall operation. Electromagnet technology replaced manual rope-driven
switching and braking. Besides, Push-button controls and various complex signal
systems modernized the elevator even further. Safety improvements have been
continual, including a notable development by “Charles Otis”.

Today, there are
intricate governors and switching schemes to carefully control cab speeds in
any situation. Buttons have been giving way to keypads. Virtually all
commercial elevators operate automatically and the computer age has brought the
microchip-based capability to operate vast banks of elevators with precise
scheduling, maximized efficiency and extreme safety. Elevators have become a
medium of architectural expression as compelling as the buildings, in which
they are installed, and new technologies and designs regularly allow the human
spirit.

This emergency
elevator system is designed to evacuate people from a high-rise building during
an emergency conditions. This system can facilitate emergency entry of rescue
workers as well as emergency exit of people from the building and at the same
time while using only the weight of the passengers in the absence of electric
power. Amiri,
E., Mendrela, E., & Ford, P. J. (2016.),s study found the following .”The digital control system for
implementation of position, speed, and current control of the elevator’s
electric drive is composed of three cascaded loops which are coordinated to
work together using information obtained from the motor’s position sensor and power
supply’s current output. Using MATLAB’s Simulink software package these
separate loops are integrated into one digital control system which is then
compiled into machine language, loaded on the Space DS1104 hardware, and then
executed in real time.”

“In high-rise
buildings elevators are divided into groups called blanks, each blanks serves a
certain floors called a service zone.” MITRIC, S. (1975).

This elevator
system will help people escape from a disaster-stricken building while
transporting rescue workers to the affected floors in the building at the same
time – as efficiently, safely and quickly as possible. “New building codes are stimulating the adoption of modern systems that
can save more than 40% of current annual energy use.” Sachs, H., Misuriello,
H., & Kwatra, S. (2015)

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The
complete diagram of the power generation using Rack and Pinion arrangement is
given

below.
This system can facilitate emergency entry of rescue workers as well as
emergency exit of people from the building and at the same time while using
only the weight of the passengers in the absence of electric power.  Body of elevator is connected with the rack,
whenever elevator move up and down, Rack moves up and down in vertical
direction. Pinion is connected with the rack and reciprocating motion of rack
is converted to rotary motion by help of pinion. This rotary movement is
converted to the electrical energy by Generator shaft.

The
generator is used here, is permanent magnet D.C generator. The generated
voltage is 12Volt D.C. This D.C voltage is stored to the Lead-acid 12 Volt
battery. The battery is connected to the motor with switch and switch
connection is given in to the lift. Passengers can use two-way switch for up
and down motion of the elevator.

MOTOR

Electrical motors are everywhere around us. Almost all
the electro-mechanical movements we see around us are caused either by an A.C.
or a DC motor. Here we will be exploring this kind of motors. This is a device
that converts DC electrical energy to a mechanical energy.

DC or direct current motor works on the principal,
when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences
a torque and has a tendency to move. This is known as motoring action. If the
direction of current in the wire is reversed, the direction of rotation also
reverses. When magnetic field and electric field interact, they produce a
mechanical force, and based on that the working principle of dc motor
established. Abeyratne, S., Dayaratne, U., & Perera, M. (2006)’s study found proposed driver circuit is
derived from the power topology. In the proposed arrangement, the power circuit
and the motor are integrated, and the system uses additional diodes to take
demagnetization energy.

A DC motor is any of a class of electrical machines
that converts direct current electrical power into mechanical power. The most
common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types
of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or
electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the
motor.

Most types produce rotary motion; a linear motor
directly produces force and motion in a straight line

 SHAFT

The shaft is a mechanical component which is used for
transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a
drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need
to allow for relative movement between them.

The drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear
stress and equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load.
They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too
much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia.

Also, it allows for variations in the alignment and
distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently
incorporate one or more, jaw couplings, universal joints or rag joints, and
sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint.

PULLEY

A pulley is simply a collection of one or more wheels
over which you loop a rope to make it easier to lift things.

Pulleys are examples of what scientists call simple
machines. That doesn’t mean they’re packed with engines and gears; it just
means they help us multiply forces. If you want to lift a heavy weight, there’s
only so much force your muscles can supply, even if you are the world’s
strongest man.

But use a simple machine such as a pulley and you can
effectively multiply the force your body produces. A pulley is a wheel on an
axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a
cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to
lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power.

RACK
AND PINION

A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that
comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A
circular gear called “the pinion” engages teeth on a linear
“gear” bar called “the rack”; rotational motion applied to
the pinion causes the rack to move relative to the pinion, thereby translating
the rotational motion of the pinion into linear motion.

For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a
pinion mounted on a locomotive or a railcar engages a rack between the rails
and forces a train up a steep slope.

For every pair of conjugate involutes profile, there
is a basic rack. This basic rack is the profile of the conjugate gear of
infinite pitch radius.

A generating rack is a rack outline used to indicate
tooth details and dimensions for the design of a generating tool, such as a hob
or a gear shaper cutter.

 

STEEL WIRE ROPE

Wire rope is a type of cable which consists of several
strands of metal wire laid (twisted) into a helix. The term cable is often used
interchangeably with wire rope. However, in general, “wire rope”
refers to diameters larger than 3/8 inch (9.52 mm). Sizes smaller than this are
designated cable or cords. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today
steel is the main material used for wire ropes.

Historically wire rope evolved from steel chains,
which had a record of mechanical failure. While flaws in chain links or solid
steel bars can lead to catastrophic failure, flaws in the wires making up a steel
cable are less critical as the other wires easily take up the load. Friction
between the individual wires and strands, as a consequence of their twist,
further compensates for any flaws.

Wire ropes were developed starting with mining hoist
applications in the 1830s. Wire ropes are used dynamically for lifting and
hoisting in cranes and elevators, and for transmission of mechanical power.

BATTERY

For the batteries with less than 15Ahs,
the distribution of weights was given taking into consideration that 2
batteries would be used instead of one in order to provide the required power.
A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy by a chemical
reaction. Usually the chemicals are kept inside the battery. In order to choose
the most convenient 12V battery. The characteristics that were taken into
consideration in this decision were: price, amp hours, size, weight and energy
density.

It is used in a circuit to power other
components. A battery produces direct current (DC) electricity. Using the electricity
from an outlet in a house or building is cheaper and uses less energy, but a
battery can provide electricity in areas that do not have electric power
distribution. It is also useful for things that move, such as electric vehicles
and mobile phones.

STRUCTURE

Our whole project will be set on the structure only. This is the
main part of the project
A machine structure is a fixed constructed object which functions as part of
some mechanized process or which performs mechanized processes independently.
The various types of machine structures may differ vastly from each other in
appearance. These do not include structures built to shelter or enclose
machinery; the machinery must be inextricably linked to the structure’s form. “keep
zone size as small as other objectives” MITRIC,
S. (1975). For better and faster operations.

REFERENCES

Amiri, E.,
Mendrela, E., & Ford, P. J. (2016.). Electric elevator drive with position
control. Electrical Engineering, 98 ( 3), 307-319.
doi:10.1007/s00202-016-0368-3

Abeyratne, S.,
Dayaratne, U., & Perera, M. (2006). A New Power Conversion Strategy for a
Uni-Polar Stepper Motor Drive. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.ieee-art-000001712125

De Almeida, A.
(2012). Energy-efficient elevators and escalators in Europe: An analysis of
energy efficiency potentials and policy measures. Energy and
buildings, 47, 151-158. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.11.053

MITRIC, S. (1975).
Elevator Systems for Tall Buildings: Part I: Single-Mode Elevator
Systems. Transportation Science, 9(1), 54-73. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.calbaptist.edu/stable/25767770

MITRIC, S. (1975).
Elevator Systems for Tall Buildings: Part II: Mixed-Mode Elevator
Systems. Transportation Science, 9(1), 74-85. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.calbaptist.edu/stable/25767771

Sachs, H.,
Misuriello, H., & Kwatra, S. (2015, October 08). Advancing Elevator Energy
Efficiency. Retrieved from http://aceee.org/research-report/a1501

Toni, T., Semen,
U., & Matti, L. (2017, March 8). A study for improving the energy
efficiency of lifts with adjustable counter weighting. Retrieved November 15,
2017, from https://doi-org.libproxy.calbaptist.edu/10.1177/0143624417697773

 

Yajun, Z., Long,
C., & Lingyan, F. (2008, August 8). Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4590408/?reload=true

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

 

(Elevator in 18 century)

(From
mechanical work to electrical energy transformation)

 

(Shaft)

                                                                    (
Pully)

 

(Rack and pinion)

(Wire core)

Approximate
assembly of elevator design by points of paper

 

 

 

 

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