phobia- which is also known as simple phobias, the most
common phobia on specific objects.
phobia- The extreme anxiety level or otherwise phobic
towards public or social happenings/situations.
Fear of being alone in public places from where escaping is not that easy.
Thus anxiety and phobia
are defined gradually. Thus we are going to look into the topic “Anxiety and
Phobia faced by women during first pregnancy”
non-pregnant women had same symptoms of anxiety (National Institute for Health
& Care Excellence, 2014); however, in pregnancy, the well-being of the
baby, the birth or role of parenting may
present as important features (Staneva, Bog Ossian, & Wittkowski, 2015;
Anxiety in pregnancy has
a connection with low birth weight in gestational age, prematurity, pregnancy
hypertension after delivery in children increased anxiety, behavioural and
developmental problems . His current evidence surrounding
the effects of anxiety in pregnancy is inconsistent (Stein et al., 2014). The
effects of anxiety are often studied along with depression (Glover, 2014).
Postnatal depression goes before by antenatal depression and anxiety. (Evan.et
Mood swings and feeling of anxiety are common in
this period, but prevalence and severity are not found to be different from
non-pregnant women (vanBussel et al., 2006). More amount of antenatal anxiety,
however, had been the cause of depressive disorder in postpartum pregnant women
(Robertson et al., 2004). There is a need for the research to consider anxiety
in pregnant and postpartum women as an important phenomenon. Antenatal and postnatal
anxiety had operationalized with general anxiety measures. Various authors, identified some fears and worries in
antenatal time—like fear, labour pain, the development of the foetus, or
changes in personal and marital life.( vanBussel et al., 2008).
Anxiety which happens
during pregnancy is same as antenatal depression and postnatal depression. It
is said that more than one in ten women had undergone symptoms of anxiety
during pregnancy. It is very normal to have some anxiety during pregnancy. It
may be the first time or second, but pregnancy is a time of change and some
adjustments should be made by pregnant women as well as by their family.
Anxiety is common for
mothers who are expecting their child and they will have some worries like
thinking about the health of the unborn baby, childbirth and management of
them. These kinds of worries will be more if pregnancy was unplanned.
Pregnancy is important period in women’s lives.
And also, it is the stressful in woman’s life, as psychologists said, pregnancy
has been an emotional crisis .If it is not properly managed or controlled, it
will leave unimaginable consequences on mother and baby. Anxiety disorder
during pregnancy, in developed and developing countries are 10% and 25%.Higher
level of anxiety in pregnancy, have serious effect on mother and baby. Anxiety,
in earlier pregnancy, results in losing the child and the anxiety in second and
the third trimester will have decrease in birth weight. Also anxiety during
pregnancy will pave way to emotional problems, hyperactivity disorder,
decentralization and also problem in cognitive development of children. (Shahhossein
during pregnancy is an important result of labour (Waldenstrom, 2003) has some
possibility to affect them for upcoming years (Simkin, 1991, 1992). So it is
important to have more knowledge about understanding of women’s experiences
during pregnancy, particularly about those who come into the upcoming health
care system. Moreover, studies focus about women’s experiences which focuses on
childbirth rather than pregnancy (Lundgren, 2002), and studies about pregnancy had
been focusing only on late pregnancy than earlier pregnancy (Coggins, 2002) In
Sweden, care provided during pregnancy is combined with the general health care
system and provided at free of cost for all women. Midwives will provide the
antenatal care for women with normal pregnancies (Kaplan, Hogg, Hildingsson
, 2009) modh et all 2011
Fear of childbirth
(FOC) is a very big issue which affects the well-being of pregnant women and
their children. It makes it difficult for the support of pregnancy and also prevents the normal
deliveries. According to studies based
on FOC which took part in different countries, nearly 20 to 80 % of pregnant
women experience different levels of FOC, and the occurrence of FOC had
increased over time. Research highlights a conflicting situation: with the
improvement of modern delivery capacity or potential, fear of childbirth is
left overed as a major source of stress and paves way to women to do abortion or
avoid normal delivery through
analgesics or caesarean (Korukcu, Firat, & Kukulu, 2010; Searle, 1996; Zar,
Wijma, & Wijma, 2002).
Pregnant women have different
FOC. It was found out that almost the common forms of FOC are worrying about
the well-being of the baby, the health of the unborn child, their own health
and wellbeing, the pain of contractions, and possible medical interventions
(Searle, 1996; Szeverenyi, ????, Hetey, & Torok, 1998). Lopukhova,
O. G., Kashshapova, E. V. (2015).
Anxiety and pregnancy
fear and birth of the child are registered features of eating disorders, mood
disorders, and diseased state and avoidance of childbirth or tokophobia. Even
though depressive illness is mostly seen as a disorder of postnatal depression
in mothers it is common in pregnant women. Postnatal depression had become a
focus of concern and the consequences that is going to happen to the child,
mother, and family may include neglect of the child, family breakdown,
self-harm, and suicide. Researchers suggest that the babies may develop
emotional or behavioural problems or lagging in cognitive behaviours in
childhood. But, depression during pregnancy had been neglected. Indeed,
pregnancy had been thought to protect against depression. Watson et al found out
that 23% of those with postnatal depression, this had started during pregnancy.
Depression during pregnancy had been associated with poor preference at antenatal
clinic, substance misuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery. studies, by
Menzies and Knauer, have reinforced the extent and severity of prenatal
depression. Evans et al suggest about the proportion of women rating themselves
as severely depressed before and after childbirth.They suggest that postnatal
depres-sion is not a distinct syndrome. Their data suggestthat childbirth is
less likely than the events of pregnancy to be followed by depression in women who
are not depressed. Furthermore, depressedwomen are more likely to improve after
child-birth. These conclusions have been challenged.