ETCS Maximum speed and breaking curve of

ETCS is divided into 4 different
functional levels, which includes – level 0, level 1, level 2 and level 3 as
shown in Appendix 6. The definition of the levels depends on the railroad
infrastructure (how it is equipped) and the way through information is
communicated to the train. A train fitted with complete ERTMS/ETCS equipment
and functionality can operate on any ETCS route without any technical
restrictions. The ERTMS/ETCS systems is made up of an on-board and trackside
ERTMS/ETCS assembly as shown in Appendix 5. Exchange of data between
trackside assemblies is accomplished using a combination of unidirectional spot
transmission from trackside train (Eurobalise), unidirectional semi-continuous
transmission (Euroloop) and bi-directional data transmission via GSM-R using

ERTMS Level “0”

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This level is used on trains fitted with
ERTMS/ETCS but operating on a line that is not fitted with ERTMS/ETCS or a
national system. Signals given to the driver by this method are external to the
ETCS (e.g. line side optical signal and so on), and detection of train
locations are performed by trackside equipment and not by an ERTMS/ETCS system
which technically makes the level “0” a non-ETCS system.

Typical feature of level “0”include:

Supervision of maximum train speed relay
conducted via trackside control systems

No cab signalling to the driver of the train

Driver Machine Instrument (DMI) does not display
supervisory information

ERTMS Level “1”

ETCS Level 1 is
a cab signalling system that can be integrated onto the existing signalling
system without interfering with other systems which may be in place, such as a fixed
signal lateral system (national signalling and track-release system). In Level
1 communication between the trackside and the train is made possible by
detecting Eurobalises which are installed on the track. Signalling data is
relayed via a telegramme encoder (LEU) and signalling adapter in conjunction
with route information. Fixed telegram Eurobalises also transmit static
information and serve as reference points for the trains and to calibrate their
position on the track. These balises give an exact position to the train as it
passes and allows the train to normalise its position, reducing the position

Maximum speed
and breaking curve of the train is calculated by the on-board ERTMS/ETCS using
the data from Eurobalises. Another of the key features of level 1 is that the
Euroloop can used to send semi-continuous signalling notification to a train herding
in a particular direction about the proximity of the next main signal on the line.
Furthermore, level “1” is equipped with architecture which gives visual and
sound warnings when the driver of a train is exceeding the maximum permitted
speed. If the driver fails to respond, the train guard system can be activated
remotely to slow the train to the recommended speed.

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