Constituent the constituted power. Hobbes argued that

Power is a modern concept, however, its origins date back to the 18th century
that goes hand and hand with the concept of democracy. It can be described as a
specifying an ultimate source of authority within a state, individuals giving
their authority and power to another elected official, which supports state
sovereignty. Constitutional thought claims that modern constitutions are unable
to guarantee their own terms of existence, and therefore must be decided by a
sovereign will, which is the constituent power (Loughlin). The people delegate
the constituted power to carry out the constituent power. This can become an
issue because the constituted power can clash with the people as often they
have their own agendas when comes to enforcing the constituted power.  Hobbes argued that we need a driving force of
authority to govern society or else society would be violent and chaotic.  He believed that all people were equal,
however, they should voluntarily give up their individual power in the form of
a social contract, who would then have the authority to instill equality and
cooperation among society. Constituted power, is the authority of the state,
the legislature and the judiciary, it focuses on law from the constitution
itself and exercises power over the constituent power of the people. It is the
officials that the people gave their constituent power to, who then use their
constituted power to create a series of laws and rules to govern society.
However, although Hobbes says that there is a necessity to have an absolute
power, it depends on the decisions of the individuals within society to give
that individual their power (TINA).

    Much like the concept of constituted power,
Heteronomous power can be described as power or authority that is influenced by
a force outside of the individual, the state and governance are being ruled but
that of another. An autonomous system of control is similar to that of
constituent power as it focuses on self-governing. It is power within the
individual, not given to a higher authority controlled by the state, instead of
having one authority, autonomous power suggests that everyone is in control of their
own decision and actions within society. This makes them therefore responsible
for their actions. Hobbes argues that this would never work as society would
become deviant without a driving governing force to control them.

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forms of constituted power we have looked throughout the course are the
Monarchical system of authority. This where the power falls within that of the
royal family, the king, the queen or an empire. They are constituted
authorities, as they are the head of the state and government.  Gilles Deleuze and his theory of societies of
control is another prime example of constituted power that we have discussed in
class. Societies of control are an interesting concept as they appear self-governing
but in reality, it is a form of constituted power as society is still being
controlled, but by a greater force or entity such as technology, as described
in Deleuze’s article. We are essentially taking our autonomous power and giving
it to a greater entity.  Another example
of constituted power we have looked at is the concept produced by Marx and
Engels on the communist manifesto. In short, this reading focuses on the
democratic states only representing the interests of the dominate ruling class,
and that this ruling class stays in power. The proletariat work the land, that
the ruling class owns, so they are voluntarily giving up their power to rule in
exchange to work on the land. Therefore, autonomous power is given to a greater
source (the ruling class) to govern society. 
This goes hand and hand with aristocracy. Aristocracy is a small-scale
example of constituted power in which a small usually privileged class citizen
take rule over others in society. We have also discussed the more conspicuous
forms of Constituted authorities being, the local level of government, the
state level and the federal level. The local authority focusing on the chairmen
and councillors of a particular town or city, the state being cabinet member
and state judiciary, and the federal level being the president, senators etc.
These are forms of constitute power as they have been given power by other
individuals, to govern and control society and to ensure the greater good among
citizens that reside there. They are officials appointed under the
constitution, and rule by way of the constitution.

Part C:

If constituent power is
giving away your autonomous power to a higher official authority to control the
state. An alternative to constituent power comes from the work of Adam Smith
and his theories on the division of labour and improvement. He says that in
order for economic goals can be met the government needs to refrain from
interfering in such activity. The division of labour suggests, that those who
specialize in a certain category should only focus on that category and that
way everyone is managing a different task making the production of commodities
more efficient. Smith argues, in order for this efficiency to be successful
“people must be able to have the freedom to pursue their own interests without
intervention from the state” (Jenkins 187). This concept that Adam Smith is
describing can be described as a “laissez-faire” approach to government, or the
free market. Neo-liberalism is defined by David Harvey as “a theory of
political economic practices that proposes that human well-being can be
advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an
institutional framework characterized by strong private property rights, free
markets, and free trade” (Harvey 2). This quote defining neoliberalism is
expletory of an alternative to constituent power as instead of electing or
deciding to give all power to someone of authority, so they can rule over the
state, they are giving power to individuals themselves. They are distinguishing
and dictating roles of power in society based on what each individual
specializes in. These people are then giving up their autonomous power to
specialized individuals within certain categories. Foucault’s society of
discipline and his theory of the panopticon. Foucault essential argues that in
the panopticon which is a prison structure with one guard tower in the center
people are self-governing out of the fear of being constantly under
surveillance and therefore behave accordingly, governed by societal norms and
thus allows them to These are all examples of alternatives to constituent


    Political economy is heavily influenced by
both communication and culture.  One
example of the interconnections of communication and culture in political economy
issues is the commodification of identity, and how the market then capitalizes
on this opportunity. A reading from this course that applies this concept is
that of the Frankfurt school and its notion of the commodity, and Theodor
Adorno`s reading on the culture industry. As we know a commodity is anything
that can be bought or sold, but this reading brings up the point about how this
can become harmful when speaking of something that should not be bought or
sold, such as ones identity. What Adorno essentially argues is that “a
monopolized culture industry uses the technology of mass production to acquire
power over society by proposing a model of culture that serves its economic
interests” (Jenkins 190). So, using the example of identity, society and culture
socially construct certain identities, for example the “hipster”. This is an
identity trend created by society to break away from the norm and invest in
diverse types of music, food, culture. They are about the small-town cafes, and
indie music. However, secluded identity has been revamped into a mainstream
identity that is being commodified and capitalized by the market. Adorno talks
about mass production, and how this evidentially leads to mass consumption by
the culture. Some problems with this commodification of identity is that it
creates a melting pot atmosphere, where there is a lack of diversity among
people. It encourages people to all like and associate with the same things in
order to fit the markets latest production of identity. Adorno talks
specifically about the commodification of art, and how in the process the
original artistic expression is lost within the main stream culture, and is
reproduced with lack of authenticity over and over again for the purpose of
mass production and consumption. Another example is cultural foods such as
sushi. Sushi is originally from Japan but has been commodified into a food of
sophistication, and it is recognized for that in North American cultural rather
then its native background to Japanese culture. This emphasizes the complicated
relationship between globalization and commodity culture.  This is one example of how the political
economy and the market are heavily influenced by the communication and culture
surrounding it.

Another example of the
interconnectedness of communication and culture into the political economy is
that of Keynesian economics. Keynes was an influential individual in economics,
he rejected the idea of neo-liberalism, that the economy would eventually
correct itself. Keynes believed in countercyclical investment. This way, in
times of downturn producers, could be ensured that the demand for their
products would not decrease as investments in infrastructural projects were
made and unemployment insurance would be given out. This is known as “demand
management” (Jenkins, 93). Keynesian was a strong believer that in order to
make money you would have to spend money, and believed in government
intervention when necessary to employ workers and keep prices stable.  This shows how communication and culture are
greatly embedded within the political economy as his ideas were a demand theory
focused on the short-term fluctuations in the economy. Therefore, culture is
deeply embedded through means of consumption and the market flows, how
recessions could occur. The spending of money to make money and create
employment is an investment in culture. Keynesian economics was present in the
great depression in the 1930s, when the market collapsed, it was Keynes that
was convincing governments that they needed to invest more money now, and the
short term is more important than the long term.  The whole idea of supply and demand is
influenced by society and culture.

Lastly, the concept of
gentrification and the creative city is an example of the interconnectedness of
culture and communication in political economy. Gentrification is a term that
comes from author Adrian Blackwell. In Blackwell`s reading he discusses the
issue of gentrification and the concept of the creative city. He says the root
of the creative City`s destruction is gentrification. Gentrification, loosely
meaning renovating and improving a city or district so that it can conform the
taste of the upper middle or ruling class. Blackwell argues that the Creative
City itself is so successful that it is becoming the result of its own
downfall. Creative cities are based on the notion of branding through art and
culture to become an attraction city. However, the process of gentrification is
detrimental to this idea because gentrification turns the lower income areas of
the city where the culture is often created, into wealthier parts of the city
by creating art exhibits museums etc. This is all an attempt to try to create a
creative city, however, gentrification forces out the artists and culture that
resides in the lower income parts of or industrial parts of the city as they
can no longer support themselves in a now booming “super city”. The then
bohemian atmosphere that inspired these young artists and multiculturalists to
reside there get frustrated with the increasing popularity and commodification
of the Creative City, and thus the people and content that declared that
particular city a “Creative City” is lost. Therefore, gentrification is the
root cause of the destruction of creative City`s and creative culture.

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