The context of this study. Definition of

purpose of this chapter is to present literature relevant to the topic. The
importance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. The
findings from similar studies are shared. The chapter highlights the key
concepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. The
concepts are defined in order to attach a specific meaning to fit with the
context of this study. Definition of concepts is followed by literature review.
The review focuses on studies of similar nature.  It highlight and what they have revealed about
illegal dumping. It later makes a link of observations to what has already been
discovered about the issue.

hypothesis of the study reads as ”
Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste management education,
awareness and lack of policy implementation by relevant authorities”. The
opening statement of national policy on provision of basic refuse removal to
indigent households acknowledges the shortcomings in the space of solid service
delivery. It highlights that  that the
system has had numerous challenges, One can
attest to this by observations on the increased number of illegal dumping in
different towns.

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concept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can be
defined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wants
at a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solid
waste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site within
a village where a lot of dumping is happening. There is about three dumping
sites in a radius of a kilometre. The source of waste under concern is
suspected to be coming from surrounding households. This narrows the focus to domestic
solid waste management practices.

dumping in this study refers to the dumping of domestic waste  or refuse on the site that is not designated
for this purpose by the local or provincial authority. The formal definition of
illegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or illegal manner, where it
doesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is likely because of the
improper disposal” (

management, at a broader level falls within the literature of sustainable
development. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was first
registered as a global challenge in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on
the Human Environment held in Stockholm, ( An action
from the conference was adoption of declaration on human environment. The
declaration  identified key principles
that are critical to the human environment e.g. the second principle speaks
about the natural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they
must be well managed,  (
whereas principle number six and seven speak on pollution. The two
principles give caution about man-made pollution  on the oceans/marine resources and other
forms of life. The study of illegal dumping practices can be described as form
of environmental pollution which is directed to land  to be precise.

 According to the Bruntland Commission, sustainable
development is defined as” development that meets the needs of the
present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs” (
Definition of sustainable development, can be further understood when its elements
or aspects of are brought to light. The fore-mentioned  aspects are  social, economic, cultural, political, geographical
and ecological, (

the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability are
flagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition of
sustainable development means makes a three important distinctions. It states
that it  does not use up natural
resources more quickly. It cautions human against consumption of natural
resources that cannot be replenished for future generations to use. Lastly it
introduces the idea of replacing resources either by natural processes or
technological means (

to Troschinet & Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste
management success. These are government policy, government finances, waste
characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education,
household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Management administration (MSWM),
MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market,
technological and human resources, and land availability. The study conducted
touched on elements on government policy, waste collection and household
education. The scope of the study will however not allow for exploration of all
the 12 factors.

the SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid waste
management and the environmental management.  The over-arching act will be The environmental
management act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the act
exists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose of
this act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as to
provide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The National
Policy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households (BRR),
Government Notice No. 34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to Waste Act. The
act compels municipalities to develop Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs).

key concepts that resulted  from the
over-arching policy document (59 of 2008, Republic of SA) is Sustainable waste
management. This concept is implemented through the development of an
Integrated waste management plan at a local government level.  The plan  consolidates different strategies of waste
management to be implemented within the municipality. The strategies of waste
management are better defined by hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy
is made up of four components i.e. 
Reduce (minimise the amount of waste produced), Re-use ( Use materials
more than once) Recycling (use materials more than once) therefore concerned
with  sorting, processing, and
transportation of solid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose
of remanufacture or reused.  Disposal is
perceived as the worst or less desired option for waste disposal. The study
will use the hierarchy to reveal which of the waste management strategies are
being employed in the community under study.

analysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village under
concern will be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and
concepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlined
in the sustainable development  concept
where it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation of
waste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,
recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed ( It is for this reason
that hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework for
the study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, the
difference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptions
about each waste management strategy. 

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