was applied extensively under colonial rule.
resources made available for the support of decentralization:
development aid often demand decentralization and participation for the
implementation of the programmes or projects.
· The design
and execution of policies:
supporting services from the central authority, and for lack of authority to
approve even simple expenditures required for local development.
support for decentralization:
political cultures have had an inhibiting effect on efforts at further
decentralization. ( Rondinelli( 1983:57, 62) also note that the attitudes and
behavioral patterns of local officials, leaders and populations at large may be
decisive for the success of decentralization, although it is difficult to
provide for these factors in organization design.
government in post- colonial African states have tended to hold their support
from decentralization with the result that local administrative capacity which
could have been strengthened by a clearly defined decentralization policy has
remained low and has indirectly actually contributed to centralization.
tradition of maintaining highly decentralized administrations under colonial
rule in Africa is perhaps one of the main reasons for the persistence of
remnants of decentralization more than 30 years after the completion of
factors that influence decentralization are:
Factors that affect
Decentralization can also promote political
stability and national unity, in those groups in different areas of a single
national state are afforded the opportunity to participate more directly in
administrative units can accordingly have more freedom to test innovative
action and experiment with it in selected areas, without jeopardizing national
Decentralization can rise to a more flexible, innovative and
creative administrative system.
permits these officials to design and plan development which would be
appropriate to the specific needs of the various regions and heterogynous
important factor in this regard would be to delegate some control and authority
in national development planning and government officials who are directly
concerned with the field or local situation and are as such closest to the
Overcoming the serious limitations of centrally controlled
Decentralization makes for democratic
management and flexibility of operations. People at lower levels do not feel
alienated from the top and there is little danger of administration becoming
top heavy or monolithic. Necessary changes can be made without dislocating the
results in effective supervision because mangers at the lower levels have
complete authority to make changes in work assignment, to take disciplinary
action, to recommend promotions and to change production schedule. It also
promotes effective control through comparative evaluation of performance and
clear-cut accountability for results.
Effective supervision and control:
conducted by social scientists has proved that the organization structure
itself exercises some influence on the motivation of the people working within
improves the job satisfaction, motivation and morale of subordinates. High
motivation morale help in improving productivity and working relationships.
Better utilization of talents at lower levels can be made.
Improvement in motivation and morale:
can therefore, assist in neutralizing the influence on and exclusive control
over development by the local elites.
possible to achieve better political and administrative penetration in applying
the policy of the national government in remote rural areas
provides an opportunity to subordinate managers to take initiative and acquire
leadership qualities. Lower level executives learn to manage by exercising
Development of executives:
eliminate an enormous amount of the bureaucratic red tape, usually associated
with strictly centralized planning and management in the Third World countries
as a direct result of the overconcentration of power, authority and resources
in the central government
improves organizational communication and efficiency because there are fewer
levels of authority. The problems of red-tape and bureaucratic delays are
can give rise to greater representation of a diversity of political, religious,
ethnic and tribal groups in development decision-making which, in turn, can
promote the principles of equality in the allocation and utilization of
facilitates growth and diversification of products and markets.
Growth and diversification:
decisions do not have to be referred up through the hierarchy, quicker and
better decisions at lower levels can be taken. Decentralization permits prompt
and more accurate decisions because decisions are made by those who are fully
aware of the realities of the situation.
Decentralization makes decision-making quicker and better.
provides a positive climate where there is freedom to make decisions, freedom
to use judgment and freedom to act. It gives practical training to middle level
managers and facilitates management development at the enterprise level.
Decentralization provides opportunity to learn by doing.
of authority relieves top executives from operating details or routine work so
that they can concentrate on more important functions of policy-making,
coordination and control.
Reduces burden of top executives:
Advantages/ Importance of decentralization
· Tension between utilitarian and civic considerations
sometimes results in really poor decision being taken.
· Some decisions taken at the local level are not always
appropriate, but they could be relevant within a given context.
· Tension between bureaucracy and democracy is inevitable
· It may happen that politicians and officials have different
and opposing view about a certain matter.
· The civic consideration is largely driven by politicians,
while the utilitarian consideration the function of appointed officials.
· To promote the social and economic well being of citizens.
at the expense of the other may defeat the purpose of having local authorities:
utilitarian and civic considerations are necessary ingredient for good
governance at local level.
openness and transparency are central to the political consideration, the
implication is therefore that local authorities must promote openness in their
daily business and policy-making.
authorities must have regular, free and democratic elections.
consideration emphasizes the notion of democratic processes such as elections,
and the government side of local government.
consideration-This deals with the values of participation, representation,
local autonomy, responsiveness and fairness.
service-rendering functions are largely dependent on the ability of the local
residents to pay for these services which they receive.
utilitarian consideration has a bias for recipients, namely, the citizens. But
it also recognizes the fact that citizens, in turn, have an obligation to pay
for those services.
exist because they provide services to citizens.
consideration-It entails the efficient and effective rendering of services.
which is a civic consideration
which is a utilitarian consideration