Design software simulation we found that, the

Design
and Financial Analysis of Grid Tied Solar Photovoltaic System for a Small Area Premise
Using PVsyst Software

Md.
Sazzadur Rahaman1, Kanak Kumar Borman1, Elias Hossain1,
Keshob Chandra Ray1

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1Department
of Electronics & Communication Engineering,

Hajee
Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

Abstract

To reduce pressure of the buring fussial fuel to generate
electricity, solar energy is best alternating source to produce electricity.
Solar energy is alo safe for environment. The main aim of
this paper is to design, financial analyses of a grid connected system and to
reduce CO2 emission. We analyzed different parameters of a solar
system and proposed a 96 KW rooftop solar plant which satisfy our need demand
of electricity for an administrative building of HSTU. The proposed plant
produced annual 148.5 MW electricity and annual reduction of 1819.170 tons of
carbon footprint. The performance of the plant is measured by PVsyst software.
From PVsyst software simulation we found that, the system not only satisfy our
annual need demand of 68.8 MW but also we will be sold annual 79.7 MW
electricity to the grid.   

Keyword: PVsyst, simulation, PV system, HSTU, CO2
emission.

1.
INTRODUCTION

Men have been habituated to burn
fossil fuels to generate energy from long time ago. It has become an alarming
problem that climate has been changed day by day due to increasing use of the
fossil fuels. Burning coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels
is used to produce electricity, but which pollutes two vital elements like air
and water in our environment.  Renewal
energy is alternating source to produce energy and it do not any bad impact to
environment and keep safe of our environment. With a population of 163 million,
Bangladesh is a one of the most densely populated country. Rapid urbanization fueled by
stable economic growth has created a huge demand of energy. In Bangladesh, the
electricity comes from burning gas or fuel. The
utility electricity sector in Bangladesh has one National Grid with an
installed capacity of 15,379 MW as on February’ 2017 1. The Government
of Bangladesh has planned to increase power generation and the demand for
electricity in Bangladesh is projected to reach 34,000 MW by 2030.There is an
ambitious target to generate 2000 MW of renewable energy electricity by 2021 and
whose at least 10% would be met from renewable sources including solar power
system 2. For this purpose, the government is currently working to install
solar panel-based power projects connected with the national grid, which will
have a 572 MW capacity 3. From the statistics of solar system use in the
country we assume that 1000 MW energy might be come from solar system to meet
the 2000 MW renewable energy target. There is an urgent need to employ
renewable energy in every possible form and move toward the sustainable energy
sector. Photovoltaic system is
one of the most important and premising technology that are able to produce the
electricity to meet the electricity demand of the whole world 4. Since last
decade, the photovoltaic industry grows more than 40% per year due to decrease
in cost of PV system 5. There are two effective systems for solar
photovoltaic plant design. One is stand-alone system and other is grid
connected system. Karki et al. have done an analysis for grid connected PV
system in Kathmandu and Berlin by using PVsyst software 6. In the simulation
it is found that Kathmandu is able to produce more solar energy than Berlin
with the same system. Irwan et al. 7 have done a study to analyze for a 150kW
solar power plant. In the study we found that Cyprus has a high number of sunny
days in a year so investment of the solar plant is very effective. Shukla et
al. 8 performed the design and analysis of rooftop solar PV system for Hostel
building at MANIT, and determined the payback period of 8.2 years. Raturi et
al. 9 studied the grid connected PV system for Pacific island countries in
case study of 45 kWp GCPV system located at the University of the South Pacific
(USP) marine campus in Fiji. Further, Dawn et al. 10 showed the recent
developments of India in the solar sector. Matiyali et al. 11 evaluated the performance of a
proposed 400 KW grid connected solar PV plant at Dhalipur. Performance ratio
and several types of power losses were calculated. Value of the performance
ratio obtained was 78.1% from the results practicality of the solar
photovoltaic power plant was discussed.

 

From literature review, we found that PVsyst software is one
of the best software for simulation of sizing, optimizing, loss analysis and
financial analyses of a grid connected photovoltaic system 12. In this
paper we calculated financial analyses and did a simulation with PVsyst V6.43 software. Proper sizing and calculation of grid connected PV
system is done for the administrative building of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science
& Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. In most of the previous
research studies, we found that research has mainly been done in sizing and
optimizing of solar systems but cost analysis is not carried out. Thus this research
is aimed at fulfilling the research gap which is missing in previous studies.

 

 

2.
METHODOLOGY

2.1 Geographical location of the site

Hajee Mohammad Danesh
Science & Technology located in Dinajpur, Bangladesh. It lies on 25.70º N. latitude and 88.65º E longitude on
the eastern bank of the river Punarbhaba and 42 meter above sea level13.
The total area of the campus is 85 acres. The entire campus consists of
administrative and academic building, Library, Residential accommodation for
students and staff. The rooftop area of the administrative building is 1200 m2.
The sun path diagram at HSTU, Dinajpur over the year, is shown in Figure 1.

Fig
1: Sun path for HSTU administrative building

2.2 Data collection for proposed model

For designing a grid
connected system, the data is collected from solar PV module, Inverter, monthly
meteorological data for global radiation and required temperature. Our analysis
found that the monthly electricity demand is 125MWh/year for administration
building. Fig 2 illustrates the daily peak hour 9 to 11 AM where the maximum
load occurs.

Fig
2: Daily power consumption

3.
COMPONENT OF PV BASED SOLAR POWER PLANT

This
section covers the significant aspects of the design and simulation of the PV
system. The different components of the solar PV plant are shown in Figure 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig
3: Block diagram of the plant system

The grid connected
solar PV system consists of the following components

3.1 Layout of plant:
Total roof area of the building is 1200m2. The selected panel for
the plant is 320 Wp and needed area is 585 m2 shown in Fig 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig
4: Satellite view of HSTU administrative building

3.2 Tilt angle: The tilt
angle for the proposed PV plant is 30º.

3.3 Solar PV module:
There are different types of solar module is available in the market. For the
large-scale plant, polycrystalline modules are commonly used. For the proposed
model, we used polycrystalline based REC 320PE 72 modules for simulation. The
array global power is 96 kWp at STC and 96.1 kWp at operating condition (25ºC).
Array operating characteristics (50ºC) are Umpp 378 V and Impp 254 A.
Degradation rate of the REC panel is taken to 0.7%/year14.  The parameters of proposed module is given in
the table 1

 

 

Table 1: Solar PV module specification

Specification

Parameter

Module
Name

REC 320PE 72

Used
Technology

REC

Open
Circuit Voltage

46.10 V

Short
Circuit Current

8.990 A

Maximum
Current

8.450 A

Maximum
Voltage

37.90 V

 

3.4 Inverter: An
inverter is a device which converts DC voltage to AC voltage. It is very
important to meet the inverter specification with the PV specification which
runs the system properly. Three number of inverter are used for the proposed
plant which rating is 32 kW. The manufacturer corporation is AEG Power Solutions
GmbH, having a model – Protect-PV 30. The inverter has operating voltage
350-750 V and the unit nominal power is 32.0 kWac. There are 3 units of
inverter to be installed and the power capacity is 96 kWac. The parameters of
proposed inverter is given in the table 2

Table 2: Solar Inverter module specification

Specification

Parameter

Inverter Name

Protect-PV 30

Used Technology

AEG
Power Solutions GmbH

Minimum MPPT Voltage

350 V

Minimum Voltage for PNom

250
V

Maximum MPPT Voltage

750 V

Absolute max. PV Voltage

900
V

Power Threshold

1000 W

 

4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Plant configuration :

For appropriate sizing
of grid connected system, the proposed model is designed by PVsyst software
simulation. The panels are connected in series with 10 modules and 30 strings
in parallel. Therefore, total numbers of modules are 300. The required total
module areas are 585 m2 for panel. Total cell area is 526 m2
, this is the area where the solar radiation absorbed. At the maximum power
current of the system will be about 260 A.The total capacity of three inverter
is 96 kWac which is used for the proposed model.

The
output of the PV system depends upon the received solar radiation and
temperature15. Fig 5 shows the array voltage-current diagram of the
photovoltaic module. The maximum power point voltage will be 450 V at the
33ºC  temperature whereas the maximum
power point voltage will be 470 V  at the
20ºC  temperature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig
5: Voltage- Current diagram

4.2 Need demand

From our analyses, we
found that user need average 343 KWh per day. So, annual demand of the user is
125 MWh per year. From Fig, it observed that the maximum energy supply to the
user is in the month of March, which is 10.02 MWh. The minimum supply to the
user is in the month of December, which is 1.92 MWh whereas the maximum energy
injected to the grid in the month of November, which is 13.17 MWh. Montly needed energy shown in fig 6

                    

Fig
6 : Monthly user needed energy and total annual balance

System specification

Ø  System
produced energy : 148.5 MWh/year

Ø  Specific
production :1547 kWh/kWp/year

Ø  Performance
ratio (PR) :78.1%

Ø  Solar
Fraction (SF) : 54.9%

 

Fig
7: Normalized energy production

As we can see in Figure
6, normalized energy, i.e. kWh/kWp/day is shown per month. The collection losses
of PV array are 0.82 kWh per day and system losses per day is 0.37 kWh/kWp. The
average of actual produced energy per day is 4.24 kWh/kWp. The average value of
the produced energy per month is found to be minimum in the month of July,
which goes as low as 3.5 kWh/kWp, this is because of natural disaster such as
rain, cloud weather but this month losses are minimum. The maximum produced
energy in the month is March and November which goes up to 6 kWh/kWp.

 

 

Fig
8: Performance ratio of the system

In the system, the
average performance ratio is 0.781, i.e. 78.1% which shown in the figure 7.The
variation in performance ratio is very negligible, but lower performance is
observed in the month of May16.

4.3 Loss diagram over
the whole year

It is impossible
to covert 100% energy received from the solar radiation because of various
losses . Fig 8 represents detailed losses occurred in the proposed model. It
observed that the net electricity production is around 148.5 MWh/year and the
system does not supply completely to load or to grid. This is because, the
software assumes that total load is distributed for every hour of the day for a
complete month and solar energy is not available for 24 h a day17. Around
79.7 MWh is supplied to the grid and around 68.8 MWh to the user, while it
takes 56.5 MWh from the grid.

Fig
8: Loss diagram of the system

 

 

 

4.4 Economic analysis

For a system, cost
analysis is very important. From the analyses, we found that the plant produced
energy is 148.5 MWh/year, out of which 79.7 MWh/year will be sold to the grid.
The total yearly cost is coming out to be around 9384000
Tk/year,
with net investment including taxes (15%) is around 10791600
Tk/year.
The cost of produced energy is coming out to be 6.25 Tk/kWh. The duration of
loan is 25 year at 6% interest. Cost summery is given below

Ø  Total
installed cost : 9384000 Tk

Ø  Total
running cost : 84128 Tk/year

Ø  Project
life time : 25 years

Ø  Tax
: 15%

Ø  Total
300 units PV module cost : 4800000 Tk

Ø  Total
3 units inverter cost : 3360000 Tk

Ø  Gross
investment (without tax)
: 9384000 Tk

Ø  Net
investment (all taxes included) : 10791600 Tk

Ø  Loan
over 25 years : 6%

4.5 CO2  reduction

With lower
carbon emissions, the adoption of renewable energy technology can help reduce
global warming 18-19. Solar PV GHG emissions are
due to the energy spent during the manufacturing of the panels 20. Calculation of carbon balance is as follows:

Carbon balance = (Egrid * life of plant * LCEgrid)
– LCEsystem

                                  
= (148.5 MWh*25* 584 gCO2/kWh)-176.1 tCO2

                           = 1819.170 tCO2                                                       

CONCLUSION

Now a day, electricity
generation has become a major challenge for a country. This design of the plant
consists with the help of the PVsyst software. By the help of the PVsystem
software, output of the needed electricity, financial analyses and system
losses is configured. The whole  study is
focused to design and financial analysis of grid tied photovoltaic system for
small area. In the proposed system, 300 units module and 3 units inverter are
produced 148.5 MW electricity which satisfy our need demand. Performance ratio
of the system is 78.1%. In financial analyses, we found that institute can not
only satisfy the need demand but also earn profit to sell excess electricity.
This plant will be able to reduce 1819.170 tCO2 in its lifetime of
25years. This proposed plant is ideal to institute as well as contribute of
Bangladesh Government target of generate
2000  MW of renewable energy electricity
by 2021.

 

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