Leukemia (fig 3) this is called anemia

Leukemia is a white blood
cell disease, in which white blood cells (WBC) multiply on a large scale, as a
result WBC’s are not able to perform its function appropriately. Death rates
are increases very vast due to leukemia. It can only be cure by diagnosing at
early stage. Hematologist manually examined blood slides under microscopic. It
has some downside, it is time consuming and expensive. If hematologist is not
experienced in this, it can lead to inaccurate results. In this survey the preliminary
study of detection of leukemia family is examined by practicing the microscopic
images of blood sample. It is foremost to examine the images because from these
images, disease can be detected at premature phase. This automation process
curb the above problems, as images are low-priced and also expensive testing
and lab equipment’s are not mandatory. By using MATLAB, detection of leukemia
gives the standard results with low cost. In this case, inputs are images and
we need image processing like image enhancement, feature extraction, image
segmentation and classification for processing the input imagesOver the past decade, visualization and interpretation
methods of medical imaging has become most important in biology and medicine.
Tremendous development of new instruments has been witnessed for storing,
analyzing, detecting and displaying medical images. This has led to a huge
growth in the application of digital image processing techniques 1 for
solving medical problems. The most challenging aspect of medical imaging lies
in the development of integrated systems for the use of the clinical sector. Complex medical
system have need of an interdisciplinary combination of physicians and
engineers for the design implementation and validation. Leukemia is the blood
cancer related with white blood cells 3. It is a bone marrow disorder that arises when abnormal
white blood cell begins to continuously replicate itself. These cells do not
function normally which is to fight off infections. These effected WBC
also effected the RBC and platelets. Effected RBC lead to less oxygen being
delivered to the organs and tissues of human body (fig 3) this is called anemia
and it can make you feel tired and breathless. And generated platelets cause the problem like blood
clotting and result of this blood clotting is bleeding and bruising much more
easily in day by day. Over time, the leukemic cells grow via the bloodstream
where they extends to divide, periodically forming tumors and damaging organs
such as the kidney and liver. According to French-American-British (FAB), two
types of acute leukemia has: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and Acute
Myelogenous Leukemia (AML).AML mostly affects the adults but it can also be
found in children whereas,
ALL is commonly found in children

Acute lymphocytic
leukemia (ALL) also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is rapidly
progressing form of leukemia that is characterized by the presence in the blood
and bone marrow of large number of unusually immature white blood cells
destined to become lymphocytic. ALL cells shown in fig 1In 2003, it is
estimated that approximately 3513 death of individuals had diagnosed with leukemia
and 44,510 individuals had died of the disease in the United States. In 2011,
44000 had leukemia. If leukemia type is detected at early stage then it is
manageable and can be provided with appropriate treatment to that particular
type. Its detection starts
with a complete blood count (CBC) 4.Bone marrow biopsy is suggested to the
patient if it is counted abnormal. Hence, in order to verify the leukemia cells,
morphological bone marrow and peripheral blood slide analysis study is
done  Abnormal cells are classified in
their specific types of leukemia, and some of these cells are observed
under a microscope by hematologist in order to find the abnormalities in the
nucleus of the cells. The
scientific behavior of the disease can be guess using this classification and
accordingly treatment is given to the patient. In leukemia, without any cause
large number of abnormal WBC cells are produced in bone marrow. The manual detection of leukemia
is time consuming and high cost in pathology. Therefore, for fast and accurate
results automatic technique is adopted. Blood sample’s image is proceed
in this technique and segmented part is nucleus and at last these cells are
classified either they are blast or normal oneImage
acquisition: in image acquisition, acquiring an
image in digital form and pre-processing such as scaling

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Image
enhancement: the principle objective of enhancement
is to process an image so that the result is more suitable than the original
image for a specific application

Image restoration:
as in image enhancement, the principle
goal of restoration techniques is to improve an image in some predefined sense

Image
compression: minimizing the size of an image
without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level to conserve
memory

Image
segmentation; segmentation is the principal
approach used in this category. The region based segmentation approaches in the
second category are based on partitioning an image into regions that are
similar according to the pre-defined criteria’s

Color image processing: adding color to
gray scale image so as to improve description of the image and better human
perception

 

DESIGN

The design of this
cost is very less due to the use of basic methods like clustering segmentation,
for edge detection and morphological methods such as erosion and dilation for
smoothing. All these methods are low cost and simple and give us the desired
output if applied in the correct sequence and in the correct way with
appropriate parameters. Initially
we discuss the fundamental steps for making the image more suitable for human
perception and comprehension. 
Once we get a more detailed and descriptive image, we perform a set of
operations on the image so as to predict the presence of lymph ob.-lasts in the
number of cells in our given sample and we try to extract that cell using
morphological methods and performed processes such as scaling, noise correction,
threshold, edge detection, geometric feature extraction etc.The output of this method provides us with a specific
area of our initial sample in which we presume that the malignant cell resides. This is done by
observing the cell boundary closely to observe its shape. If the shape coincides with any geometric feature
we deduce that the cell is not infectious

On the other hand, if the cell boundary doesn’t coincide
with any geometric
figure, it may be inferred that the cell is malignant and the patient requires
immediate treatment 

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