Legislation is referred to as occupationalhealth and

Legislation of occupational health and safety in Sudan to protect the worker, care and promote health will be presented. Occupational diseases as any disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activities. world health organization (who) “occupational health deals with all aspects of health and Safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. Health has been: Defined as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” occupational health is a multidisciplinary field of healthcare concerned with enabling an individual to undertake their occupation, in the way that causes least harm to their health. Health has been defined as it contrasts, for example, with the promotion of health and safety at work, which is concerned with preventing harm from any incidental hazards, arising in the workplace. The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity; (ii) the improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking. (“1) The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work Environment osha may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the united states, the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupationalhealth and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety for activities outside of work. In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees. Statute law may in addition impose other general duties, introduce specific duties, and create government bodies with powers to regulate workplace safety issues: details of this vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In 2011 the ministry of justice authorized Khartoum state the right to issue its own laws. It passes the labor law and the law of occupational health and safety of Khartoum state (2011) •the laws neglected tens thousands of workers in small workshops, construction workers and mining workers (gold searchers). The worker’s union and experts were not actively involved in developing the laws laws alone are not enough to reduce occupational hazards in developing countries with the impotent mechanisms for its implementation The labor law included regulations and supplementary instructions as follows: in the work environment in factories: a. For hygiene: does not allow the accumulation of waste in the work rooms and stairs and corridors. rooms to be designed not to allow infiltration of water and liquids, and are constantly cleaned. b. For crowding do not allow overcrowding in any room to work. – for employees occupying a vacuum which the rest of the vacuum must be less than four hundred cubic feet for each person, and height not more than fourteen feet. – a sign written with the number of people allowed to work inside the workroom c. For lighting: – must be appropriate with sufficient capacity d. For noise and vibrations: should be reduced in the workplace so that they are in thepermissible limits. E. For the temperature and ventilation: that the temperature is appropriate to the nature of work in each room. Take actions necessary to avoid having bad air, or any decrease in the fresh air or slow renewal.f. Drinking water provision of safe and sufficient drinking water to employees G. Where to eat: -Factories must be allocated places to eat and be equipped with tables, chairs, pots clean and good with all means of comfort, and be far from the operations area. there shall be no meals, beverages and smoking in rooms and stores of raw materials harmful to the health worker F. Medical examination: Each manufacturer should provide means of medical examination for workers. Each unit in the work place must be equipped with first aid kit. Ordered by governor or his representative in consultation with the minister for health. Raising workers’ awareness to protect workers from industrial accidents and occupational diseases. ILo estimates that 4% of the world gross ? Domestic product is lost due to accidents and ? Work-related diseases ? Domestic product is lost due to accidents and ? Work-related diseases ? ? The ILO (international labor organization) has a mandate to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. One of the main functions for the ILO is to develop international standards related to labor and work. ILO standards have exerted considerable influence on the laws and regulations of member States. The ILO standards take the form of international Conventions and Recommendations. ILO Conventions andRecommendations relevant to protection of workers against ergonomic risk factors at the workplace. The role & impact of the ilo list: • promotion of the inclusion of a range of internationally acknowledged occupational diseases in national lists • harmonization of the development of policy on occupational diseases and in promoting their prevention. • serving as an example for countries establishing or revising their national lists Adding to the list would imply the extension of preventive measures to control the use of harmful substances and would assist a better health surveillance of workers • this effect can be expected both in countries that have ratified the convention and those that have not Hazard identification or assessment is an important step in the overall risk assessment and risk management process. It is where individual work hazards are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source (location of the hazard) as reasonably as possible. As technology, resources, social expectation or regulatory requirements change, hazard analysis focuses controls more closely toward the source of the hazard. Thus hazard control is a dynamic program of prevention. Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not assigning or implying there are “acceptable risks” in the workplace. A hazard-based program may not be able to eliminate all risks, but neither does it accept “satisfactory” – but still risky – outcomes. And as those who calculate and manage the risk are usually managers while those exposed to the risks are a different group, workers, a hazard-based approach can by-pass conflict inherent in a risk-based approach (.2) The information that needs to be gathered from sources should apply to the specific type of work from which the hazards can come from. As mentioned previously, examples of these sources include interviews with people who have worked in the fieldof the hazard, history and analysis of past incidents, and official reports of work and the hazards encountered. Of these, the personnel interviews may be the most critical in identifying undocumented practices, events, releases, hazards and other relevant information. Once the information is gathered from a collection of sources, it is recommended for these to be digitally archived (to allow for quick searching) and to have a physical set of the same information in order for it to be more accessible. One innovative way to display the complex historical hazard information is with a historical hazards identification map, which distills the hazard information into an easy to use graphical format. ? A hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled. ? The outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard. ? A risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved. “hazard”, “risk”, and “outcome” are used in other fields to describe e.g. Environmental damage, or damage to equipment. However, in the context of osh, “harm” generally describes the direct or indirect degradation, temporary or permanent, of the physical, mental, or social well-being of workers. For example, repetitively carrying out manual handling of heavy objects is a hazard. The outcome could be a musculoskeletal disorder (mad) or an acute back or joint injury. The risk can be expressed numerically (e.g. A 0.5 or 50/50 chance of the outcome occurring during a year), in relative terms (e.g. “high/medium/low”), or with a multi-dimensional classification scheme (e.g. Situation-specific risks) Risk assessment: Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a risk assessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept in mind that risk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is reasonably practical. This assessment should:? Identify the hazards ? Identify all affected by the hazard and how ? Evaluate the risk ? Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the harm being realized and the severity of the consequences. This can be expressed mathematically as a quantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high likelihood and severity with integers and multiplying them to obtain a risk factor), or qualitatively as a description of the circumstances by which the harm could arise. The assessment should be recorded and reviewed periodically and whenever there is a significant change to work practices. The assessment should include practical recommendations to control the risk. Once recommended controls are implemented, the risk should be re-calculated to determine if it has been lowered to an acceptable level. Generally speaking, newly introduced controls should lower risk by one level, i.e., from high to medium or from medium to low. ? physical hazards affect many people in the workplace. Occupational hearing loss is the most Common work-related injury in the united states, with 22 million workers exposed to hazardous noise levels at work and an estimated $242 million spent annually on worker’s compensation for hearing loss disability. Falls are also a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities, especially in construction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and maintenance. Machines have moving parts, sharp edges, hot surfaces and other hazards with the potential to crush, burn, cut, shear, stab or otherwise strike or wound workers if used unsafely ? Biological hazards (biohazards) include infectious microorganisms such as viruses and toxins produced by those organisms such as anthrax. Biohazards affect workers in many industries; influenza, for example, affects a broad population of workers outdoor workers, including farmers, landscapers, and construction workers, risk exposure to numerous biohazards, includinganimal bites and stings, urushiol from poisonous plants, and diseases transmitted through animals such as the west Nile virus and Lyme disease. Health care workers, including veterinary health workers, risk exposure to blood-borne pathogens and various infectious diseases, especially those that are emerging. Dangerous chemicals can pose a chemical hazard in the workplace. There are many classifications of hazardous chemicals, including neurotoxins, immune agents, dermatologic agents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, systemic toxins, as thmagens, pneumoconiosis agents, and sensitizers. Authorities such as regulatory agencies set occupational exposure limits to mitigate the risk of chemical hazards an international effort is investigating the health effects of mixtures of chemicals. There is some evidence that certain chemicals are harmful at lower levels when mixed with one or more other chemicals. This may be particularly important in causing cancer. ( 3) Psychosocial hazards include risks to the mental and emotional well-being of workers, such as feelings of job insecurity, long work hours, and poor work-life balance. A recent Cochrane review – using moderate quality evidence – related that the addition of work-directed interventions for depressed workers receiving clinical interventions reduces the number of lost work days as compared to clinical interventions alone. This review also demonstrated that the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy to primary or occupational care and the addition of a “structured telephone outreach and care management program” to usual care are both effective at reducing sick leave days. The function of an occupational and environmental health program is to protect and promote the health and safety of employees and to protect the public and the environment from hazards that may arise from industrial activities. The primary focus of occupational and environmental medicine is on the prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses, rather than on treatment, and on the prevention of occupationally related harm to public health and the environment. The goal of employee health monitoring is to ensure that measures to protect the employee from workplace hazards are effective by carrying out medical surveillanceprograms for the early detection of adverse health effects. The types of chemical or physical hazards encountered determine the nature of the medical surveillance or health monitoring programs. Monitoring employee health is one part of the exposure assessment in the risk assessment paradigm. The practice of occupational and environmental medicine relies on the profession of industrial hygiene to assess the effectiveness of procedures, including work practices, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment, for protecting employee health. The degree and type of worker protection required during operations involving chemicals are based on available toxicity information for the substances involved. Generally, this information is obtained from studies on laboratory animals. However, human data may also be available, especially for chemicals that have been in use for some time; in the case of chemical warfare agents, for example, there is a fairly extensive animal and human exposure database that is regularly reviewed and assessed physical hazards, such as noise, heat, vibration, radiation of various types, and repetitive motion, must also be considered in protecting employee health. ( 4) To ensure that employee health is being protected, physicians and others engaged in occupational and environmental medicine conduct medical surveillance programs that address the types of hazards involved in the work situation. Occupational physicians may also use epidemiological studies to assess the effectiveness of employee health protection programs. Physicians practicing occupational medicine require appropriate training, not only in this field, but also in clinical practice and related fields, such as industrial hygiene, toxicology, and epidemiology; they also work closely with industrial hygienists, engineers, and health physicists. Physicians in occupational and environmental medicine must also be aware of applicable laws and regulations.Require employers to make an assessment of the risks that their employees are exposed to which may affect their health, including respiratory sensitizers and irritants. The risks should be controlled and monitored and, where appropriate, health surveillance should be undertaken. The decision to carry out health surveillance wouldstem from pinpointing potential health hazards during a risk assessment, and measurable health outcomes.Occupational health surveillance is distinct from general health screening and health promotion. It involves watching out for early signs of work-related ill health in employees exposed to certain health risks. Such risks could be exposure to noise, vibration, ionizing radiation, asbestos, lead, fumes, dusts, biological agents, solvents or any other substances that could be hazardous to health.Health surveillance is necessary when:? There is an identifiable disease or adverse health effect associated with the exposure to the substance/s in the workplace, for example, dermatitis, cancer or asthma;? It is possible to detect the disease/adverse health effect;? The techniques for detecting the disease/adverse health effect pose no risk to employees.The aim of occupational health surveillance is not only to carry out tests, questionnaires or examinations, but to interpret these results and take action to eliminate or control further risk where necessary. The findings can also provide some reassurance that control measures are effective.Health surveillance may also involve employees self-checking for signs or symptoms of ill health associated with workplace risk. In this case, a training session should be carried out to ensure employees are looking out for the correct signs and symptoms, and know of the appropriate action to take should they detect these signs or symptoms.Alternatively, a staff member could be trained to carry out such checks. For more complex assessments, an occupational health nurse or doctor can carry out examinations or ask about symptoms.Statutory medical surveillance (that must be carried out by a doctor appointed by the hose) is required to be part of the health surveillance /medical programmer by law when certain high-hazard substances are present in the workplace.These substances include:? Some forms of asbestos;? Lead;? Ionizing radiation;? Work within compressed air? Work with substances hazardous to health that are subject to schedule 6 of the control of substances hazardous to health regulations 2002(.5)

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