Pakistan land development are available from the

Pakistan
is expecting to have twice population and become 4th largest nation by 2050
from          current status of the 6th
most populous state of the world (Feeney and Alam, 2003). The total farm land
has increased by just 40% during past 60 years, while there was more than 4
times increase in population with urban expansion of over seven-folds resulting
into mega-cities as well as rising population pressure on cultivated land
(Ahmad, 2007). Agricultural total area in the country is 30.95 million hectares
out of which only 22.68 million hectares is being actually cultivated (GOP,
2011). All cropped area come down from 23.76 million hectares to 22.54 million
hectares during 2009 to 2014 due to severe floods, water shortage and salinity
issues in the country cause to enhance of cultivable waste land from 8.14 to
8.27 million hectares over the same period (GOP, 2011). A major portion of that
cultivable 8.27 million hectares waste could be brought under cultivation by
harnessing the available water resources, and using mechanical power.
Cultivable waste land development can be done by using earth traction equipment
through tractor front mounted blades, dozers, land levelers and excavator.
Figure 2 Increase in number of tractors (GOP, Tractor mounted front blades are
available through private sector while bulldozers for land development are
available from the public sector. This cultivable waste land can economically
be developed for cultivation through the use of crawler tractors/bulldozers
only. The existing fleet of 338 operational bulldozers in Punjab (GOP, 2015),
84 in Sindh (GOS, 2015) is insufficient to convert 3.52 million hectares of
cultivable waste land into the productive. It is roughly calculated that with
the present power of bulldozers, it will take about 100 years to develop the
total cultivable waste land of Province Punjab.Mostly
in Pakistan, primary and secondary tillage operations are adopted for soil.
Primary tillage is opening of the compacted soil with the help of different
ploughs to break the hard pan caused by compacted soils. Furthermore, primary
tillage is opening of the compacted soil with the assistance of various plough
to break the hard pan caused by compacted soils. Secondary tillage on the other
hand is performed after primary tillage for lighter or finer operations as after
primary tillage, the fields are left with large clods with some weeds and
partially uprooted stubbles. Cultivator is the most widely used implement for
primary as well as secondary tillage of soil and is growing radically during
the last four decades. The availability of the cultivator in the country has
augmented from 369 thousands in 2004 to 901 thousands in 2014, whereas the
share of moldboard plow, disc plow, disc harrow, rotavator and chisel plow has
enlarged from 40 to 189, 29 to 142, 23 to 94, 47 to 113 and 8 to 47 thousands
respectively, during the same period (Table 2). Continues increase in the
cultivator is due to its low draft requirement and also its price is
considerably less as compared to the other tillage implements. Repeated use of
cultivator not only creates hardpan which adversely effects root
development/penetration, but it does not fulfill the purpose of tillage as described
above. Most of the progressive farmers do use mould board plow and disc plow
for primary tillage and disc harrow and rotary tiller (rotavator) for secondary
tillage specially for sowing of wheat after paddy and cotton in Punjab. Protection
culturing practices, for example, zero tillage for sowing of wheat in fields
with rice stubbles, perpetual beds culturing for sowing of cotton on beds of
past harvest and mulch or stubble culturing for maintenance of past product
stubbles in the field are additionally drilled on restricted scale not
exclusively to limit cost of culturing and seedbed readiness, yet additionally
to moderate ozone harming substances.

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