divided gain more control over the populations,

divided
into “low skilled – low pay” and “high skilled – high pay” segments, which would
lead to an increase in social gap. Besides that, inequality is the greatest
societal concern in 4IR. It is because the largest beneficiaries of all would
tend to be the capital – the innovators, the shareholders and the investors
which might explain the widening gap of wealth on capital versus labour.

4IR
has a huge impact on business. New technologies are introduced in many industries,
which has created more and entirely new ways of serving existing needs and seriously
disrupt the existing industry value chains for example flowing between agile
and innovative competitors, global digital platforms for research and development,
marketing, sales and distribution. They have to improve faster than ever in the
quality, speed, or price at which value is delivered. New technologies make
assets more durable and resilient while data is transforming in the way it is
maintained. In order to survive, they would have to express themselves in a new
form of collaboration which suites the new era, combining customer experiences,
data-based services and asset performances as well. In the end, it includes the
emergence of global platforms and other new business models, which means that
everything would have to be reformed, talents, cultures and organisational
thought for instance.

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As
for the governmental superiors, 4IR has its effects too. As the convergence
goes on, technologies would increase platforms which enable citizens to engage
with government, dishing out their opinions or stands and coordinate their efforts.
As a result, there would be more interactions between government and the public
authorities, thus government will gain more control over the populations, by
the pervasive surveillance systems and the power to take over digital infrastructure.
However, they would have to face pressure to change their current approach to
public engagement and the policy-making, as their main roles of conducting new
policy diminishes new competition sources and decentralization and
redistribution of power because of the new technologies introduced. Their
adaptation ability will decide if the government and public authorities could
survive in this new era of industry. They should be able to subject their organisation
to a new level of transparency and efficiency and endure the disruptive change.
If they do not evolve, they would be facing numerous troubles, especially in
the realm of regulation. Current system of public policy and decision evolved
was mainly based on the Second Industrial Revolution where the policy-makers
had the time to do research on specific issues and develop the necessary decisions
or appropriate regulations. The whole decision as designed to be linear and
mechanistic, following a strict “top to down” approach, however such a solution
is no longer applicable. Given that the legislators and regulators are challenged
a whole new level of stress, considering the rapid change and huge impacts of
4IR on politics, economics and socials. Besides, it will cause blurring to the
definition of conflicts. Modern conflicts involving states are increasingly “hybrid”
in nature, combining both traditional battlefield technique and 

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