The World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the main directing healthauthorities of the United Nations (UN). This organization was established in 1948 bythe UN. WHO’s main headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland.When the United Nations was founded after World War II, health was one of themain concerns within humanity. As a result, WHO was created as an organizationwith the major goal for providing the highest possible level of health among allpeople. Therefore, the committee is responsible for promoting healthy choices,supporting the fight against pandemic and epidemic diseases, providing medicaltreatment, and to propose solutions forward proper health worldwide. The currenthead of WHO is the Director-General, Dr. Margaret Chan. She was chosen for afive-year term at the World Health Assembly on November 9, 2008, and wasreelected for a second term ending on June 30, 2017.II. Topic informationBiological weapons include any microorganism or toxin found in nature that can beused to kill or injure people.The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of thesebiological weapons, also referred to as agents. A number of nations have or areseeking to acquire biological warfare agents, and there are concerns that terroristgroups or individuals may acquire the technologies and expertise to use thesedestructive agents. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, aswell as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands.A) History of TopicBiological warfare agents can be more powerful than conventional and chemicalweapons because of the extent of destruction that they can cause. During the lastcentury, advances in biotechnology and biochemistry have simplified thedevelopment and production of such weapons. Also, genetic engineering hasperhaps the most dangerous potential. The easy way of production and the wideavailability of biological agents and know how have led to a greater spread ofbiological weapons and a greater desire among all countries to have them in case ofsomething happen.Infectious diseases provocated by these types of weapons were recognized for theirpossible impact on people and armies as early as 600 BC. The crude use of filth andcorpses, animal carcasses and contagion had devastating effects and weakened theenemy. Polluting wells and other water sources of the enemy army were a commonstrategy that continued to be used throughout the many European wars.During the last century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases.Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release ofpathogens or toxins, mainly by the Japanese during their attacks on China duringWorld War II. Two international treaties banned biological weapons in 1925 and1972, but to a large extent they have not prevented countries from conductingoffensive investigations on weapons and large-scale production of biologicalweapons. And since our knowledge of the biology of the causative agents ofdiseases, it is legitimate to fear that the modified viruses, or another microorganismsthat cause people get sick, could constitute devastating agents to biological warfare.B) Current IssuesThe international community banned the use of chemical and biological weaponsafter World War I and reinforced the ban in 1972 and 1993 by prohibiting thedevelopment, production, stockpiling and transfer of these weapons. Today’sadvances in life sciences and biotechnology, as well as changes in the securityenvironment, have increased concern that long-standing restraints on the use ofchemical and biological weapons may be ignored or eroded.