“This nation should commit itself to achieving the goal before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.” These famous words were spoken by President John f Kennedy on May 25th of 1961. This marks the beginning of the space race for many americans. However the space race actually began long before when the soviets launching Sputnik into space, the first artificial satellite and the first manmade object to be put into space. A year later americans launched explorer 1. In that same year president Eisenhower formed NASA ( national aeronautics and space administration).September 8, 1944 Nazi Germany faced catastrophic defeat and in the last try for victory Hitler ordered the launch of a new secret weapon, the V2. It was The most powerful man made rocket the world has ever seen it traveled 200 miles into space before hitting its target in London. The allies soon realize that they need this weapon to beat Germany. As americans realized they were many years behind the Nazis Toftoy of US intelligence got orders from the American government to capture the V2 at any cost. This is how the race to capture von Braun had started. The Soviets were already ahead because they already started closing in fast on pddnemünde, where Von Braun has his research base stationed. As they moved closer to Von Braun they found an abandoned Shell of a V2 in Poland clearly left by Germany. Serov Korolev ( USSR’s head of secret police) ordered by Stalin to capture Braun ordered the Soviet troops to take it back to Moscow. As the Soviets were closing in on where Von Braun he had fled from the advancing Soviet troops. Von Braun’s rocket group is ordered to stay and fight, but desperate to save his blueprints he gives instructions to leave and the essential documents are to be destroyed. Von Brown’s plan is evacuate peenemunde and head south into central Germany establishing a base near the V2 factory where they are mass produced. Ever since Von Braun was a little child he dreamt of space exploration. To peruse his dream he joined a mature rocket groups and soon enough the Nazis saw how good he was at engineering. Not only in 1938 he joined the nazi party, but also accepted the rank of major in the SS. Von Braun’s move to the south put more distance between him and the Soviets, but it brought him close to the Americans who were getting closer to centers Germany. Just one step ahead of the enemy Braun gets to the V2 factory. All he wants to do it further his research on rockets, not just the V2. By March 1945 the Soviets had advanced to the outskirts of Berlin. They have almost gotten Hitler but no closer to Von Braun. It’s a huge setback for the Soviet secret police. Glushko is Russia’s leading rocket engine specialist, but Russia’s top rocket scientist has been in the Russians gulag for almost 6 years his name is Sergei Korolev. Korolev was a genius, in 1933 he and a group of engineers sent up Russia’s first liquid fueled rocket. His rocket knowledge is almost as good as Von Braun’s. As Americans get closer to Von Braun he gets on a train to the Alps. As Von Braun heads to the alps Americans get to the V2 factory. They soon Discover the V2 factory where almost 5000 V2s have been produced. On the other side of the mountain Soviet Troops find camp Dora that supplied slave labor to the factory. More have died making the V2 then the V2 has killed. As Von Braun is in the alps he is afraid of getting shot by the SS. Von Braun leaves the alps camp and surrenders to the Americans at the risk of getting killed by the SS. In October 1945 von Braun arrives in America. He is sent to Fort Bliss in Texas where he is waiting to resume his work in rocket engineering. On 17th September 1948 the Soviets have already made blueprints for their own version of the V2 and it is ready for launch but it simply does not work so Korvel has to figure out a new way to launch it or Stalin will surely send him back to the gulag. Korolev realizes copying the V2 will get him nowhere so he makes his own design that is much lighter and the nose is detachable. As Korolev is struggling to build a rocket Von Braun is showing of satellite models to space enthusiasts. Finally on September 25 1949 Korolev is ready to launch his new and improved V2, as planned it’s a huge success. And this is how the cold wars race for space begins, and the soviet Union is winning. As the Cold War ended Europe was divided into the communist east and capitalist west. The former allies, Soviet Union and American entered in a “race” for space. The Cold War was pretty much driven by the fear of the other striking with nuclear weapons. Korolev realized the first step to man spaceflight is a satellite. He also knew Von Braun is just as a good engineer as him. What he did not know is because Von Braun is working under the US military he was not getting the proper funding to really get any work done on a satellite because the Army only wanted bigger and better rockets. But to launch his first Korolev must finish his design on the R7 which is a huge rocket that could carry a warhead or a satellite. Finally Von Braun gets funds but not for a sadilie instead the Jupiter C. It is a lot less powerful than the R7 but it could still launch a satellite, so Von Braun does not give up on his dream to be the first to launch a satellite into space. But the pentagon keeps rejecting Braun’s request to launch a satellite despite the jupiter C has proven to be working fine. Korolev on the other hand was ready to test fly his rocket and then he would be ready to get the first satellite into space. But the R7 had the problem of exploding and Korolev could not fix it. After a lot of failures the soviet Union gives him one more chance to get it right. And on Koroleva Sixth test launch of the R7 it flies over 6,000 kilometers which is more than any other rocket before. This means Korolev can finally launch his spudnick. Finally on October 4th of 1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1 into space this is the first manmade object to orbit earth. This is the first win for Soviet Union. This was also a huge blow to Americans, but President Eisenhower waited a full five days to hold a press conference about the Sputnik. What the Americans didn’t know it Korolev now wants to launch sputnik 2 with a passenger, a cute little dog named Laika. And on November 3rd, only 4 weeks later the Soviet Union launched laika into space on sputnik 2 which is the first living creature in space. Which is another win for the soviet Union. This is also a tragic moment because Lika dies after 6 hours due to heat exhaustion. Finally after years of asking Von Braun gets permission to launch a satellite, he immediately gets a team to build one. He calls it the explorer 1. The Vanguard rocket ( what Von Braun was planning to launch his satilige in )had never been tested before, but America was desperate to catch up so they send it up anyway. The only thing that survives is the satellite. People called it the “Flopnik”. If done right Von Braun could successfully launch another explorer into space so finally on January 31 1958, a sad four months after the Russians launched Sputnik the first American satellite is launched into space. ///////The year was 1959 and Korolev wanted to send the first man into space. They choose Yuri Gagarin. This is when NASA is created and they’re main goal is to put a man into space. They selected seven test pilots, they are called the Mercury astronauts. Atlas is the missile that is undergoing changes to become America’s first intercontinental missile, but the atlas exposed so the Americans turn to a old US army missile called Redstone. Von Braun is given the chance to modify redstone to make it fit for an Astronaut. Braun soon realizes it would take a lot of modifications to make it safe for man still it would only have 1 10th of the R7. But before he has the chance to make all the modifications Korolev sends the first successful probe to the moon named Luna 2, this is a huge milestone in space exploration. The Russians boast about how communism is better than Capitalism. Korolev is planning to take Yuru in a capsule naked Vostok. The Americans on the other hand are having trouble finishing the modifications on Redstone. But the Korolev is having no picnik himself because in order to send a man into space he must prove he can’t get him back to earth safely unlike Lika. He selects two dogs to test try out his new capsule, Lisichka and Chainka. If he doesn’t get this right he might not get the proper funding/ support to send Yuri into space. 30 seconds into the flight the dogs get incinerated because the capsule exploded. But Korolev doesn’t care and wants another dog launched in a month. And surely enough he launches another 2 dogs named Bella and Strelka less than a month later are soon in orbit because Korolev Succeeded I’m getting them down. This proves he can finally send Yuri and get him down safely. The Americans finish the modifications and now it’s time to test the modified Redstone on nov 21st 1960. If they succeed they can set a date to send one of the seven mercury astronauts into space. But the modified Redstone only lifts 4 inches of the ground until coming back. And because the soviets keep test launches secret the Americans have no idea if they are far behind or well ahead of them. But Americans are determined to get ahead so they select Alan Shepard to make the first suborbital flight on the Redstone. And on Jan 31st 1961 a Chimp named ham is launched in the Redstone and its life is at risk, but if it’s successful Shepard is next. Ham successfully comes back to earth so Alan will be next. If they don’t quickly the Soviets might beat them to it. The Americans choose to do another test flight and it goes smoothly so they plan on putting a man in space very soon. On the 12th of April 1961 the R7 is ready for Gagarian to be launched into space in the capsule Vostok. This is how Yuri became the first human to be in space. This was a huge win for the Soviet Union. May 5th 1961 Alan is ready for take of but bad weather prevents him from getting of the launch pad so after waiting 5 hours he needs to go pee badly, Von Braun tells him to just go in his suit, so he does. Other then that the launch went great and Alan Shepard was the second person to orbit earth. After this the new President realizes he needs to do something bold to win the space race and he soon announces that in the next 10 years he will send a man to the moon ” not because it is easy, but because it is hard.” Now getting a man on the moon was the next battle and possibly the most important one. Von Braun has NASA to fund him but Korolev was having trouble finding someone. The politburo would not fund Koroleva Luna N1 so he turned to Glushko who also turned him down. While Von Braun is building a new rocket to get man on the moon Korolev on 18th May of 1965 soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov becomes the first man to walk in space, and Korolev hope that this will help him get funds for his Luna mission. But this mission was almost a failure because Alexeys suit got so inflated he could no fit back into the spacecraft but after one last push he got in and the mission was successful. Also Koroleva plan to get funds works but he only gets a small portion of what he wanted. The Luna rocket will take almost 3 years to complete and the capsule the Cosmonauts will be in is called the Soyuz and it can carry three people. Meanwhile the Americans made a new spacecraft called Gemini that was launching a manned mission almost every two months. Which is very beneficial for their new Apollo mission to the moon. Back in USSR Korolev dies on January 14 1966 and without his engineering and leading skills it is the beginning of the end of Soviet Union’s space achievements. He was truly a hero and genius to the Soviet Union. When news gets to Von Braun he realizes the Soviets have just lost their stop engineer and he might actually have a chance to be the first on the moon. He is almost down building his Saturn 5 rocket that will take the first people to the moon. On January 27 1967 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed white, and Roger Chaffee are put into an Apollo 1 capsule to see how it works, this was a tragic day for Americans because Apollo 1 explodes and everyone in it dies. Three months later the Soviets test Soyuz with a cosmonaut on board named Vladimir Komarov. The mission wasn’t more successful than the Americans because a solar panel does not open and the Capsule does not have enough power. He somehow got the Soyuz back down to earth but his Parachute fails and he dies. Back in America Von Braun’s new rocket is working great so a maned Apollo is ready for launch. 2nd December 1968 Apollo 8 flies around the moon with three Astronauts. Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and billAndres become the first human beings to look down on the moon’s surface. Finally the big day arrives ( July 30th 1969 )Neil Armstrong, Edwin Alton and get into Apollo 11 and are launched into space as we already know this the land on the moon and safely come back to earth making them the first humans to walk on another planet. And the Soviet Union without Korolev becomes irrelevant.