According The model is influenced by two

According to Brooke (1986, p.345) Steers and Rhodes (1978)
process model of attendance has made a big contribution to research on
workplace absenteeism (Appendix A). The model is influenced by two factors:
“attendance motivation (voluntary absenteeism) and ability to attend
(involuntary absenteeism)” (Kuzmits, 2009, p.281). According to Smulders (1980,
p.368) attendance motivation is influenced

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by how satisfied an employee is by their job situation. This
includes both internal and external pressures such as job scope, leadership
style of manager, job level, stress of the role and opportunities for
advancement. Ability to attend is influenced by personal characteristics such
as age, sex, education and tenure. This can affect ability to attend through
problems such as illness, family problems and difficulty making the journey to
the workplace.   Steers and Rhodes ‘Process Model’ has been
called one of the most influential and often-cited models in the absenteeism
literature (Harrison and Martocchio, 1998). Since Steers and Rhodes (1978)
model was established there has been limited further research on motivation and
ability to attend, rare research that was carried out found mixed results.  

Having reviewed the literature on Steers and Rhodes (1978)
‘Process Model’ it is clear that the model has come under criticism in the
past. According to Brooke (1986) there are a number of aspects of the model
that are sources of “difficulty in its operationalization”. They are summarised
as follows: 1.) Possible problems associated with the construct validity of the
key components of the model. Steers and Rhodes do not define the variables of
“ability to attend”, “pressures to attend” and “motivation to attend” as single
constructs  2.) Steers and Rhodes model
implies an assumption that attendance and absence are complements of one
another. They do not define their dependent variable and they use “imprecise
variable labels” e.g Job Scope. 3.) A third difficulty comes from Steers and
Rhodes mixing the variables and theoretical concepts that are associated with
absenteeism. This can be seen when Steers and Rhodes include ‘personal
characteristics’ as determinants of both ability to attend and
values/expectations. By mixing the variables Steers and Rhodes add confusion of
understanding why they are related to each variable. 4.) Another concern is
associated with the lack of “substantive discussion”of variables that are
potentially important. It could be argued that Steers and Rhodes model is
criticised for not including more theory.

 Researchers have
argued that the model is “a framework rather than a theory per se, because it
specifies broad collections of variables rather than relations between
welldefined constructs” (Brooke, 1986 as cited by Harrison and Martocchio,
1998, p. 312).

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