IntroductionRecent explain the major factors of biodiversity

IntroductionRecent figures show that the rate of deforestation is 160,000 square kilometers per year. Which results in almost 1% of forest environment lost per year. Ecosystems such as tropical rainforests suffer at the same rate or a bit more of natural element loss along with other forest ecosystems(1). This affects the organisms that use these ecosystems as their shelter. Ecosystem loss may be the main reason why biodiversity and organisms are in danger since it can lead to reduction or an extinction to organisms. Back in 1986, Temple discovered that the ruination of the homes of biodiversity plays a huge role in endangering approximately 82% of all endangered birds. A more serious point is that endemic organisms are facing extinction debt since they only adapt to one region and once they lose that one region they inhabit, the possibility of recovering is almost impossible(2). This can affect us too because biodiversity and animals help keep our food supplies away from pests and diseases. In this report I will identify the issues and come up with solutions to avoid future problems.IssuesThe issues of losing biodiversity and ecosystems are endless and have an even impact on different species including us humans. I wont be able to explain all the points but I will explain the major factors of biodiversity and ecosystem loss which are:- Habitat loss, climate change and Over-exploitation.The issues will be divided into different perspectives as biodiversity and ecosystem loss on a global perspective, perspective of the United Arab Emirates (my home country) and my own personal perspective.Causes and consequences of  biodiversity and ecosystem lossWhen talking about biodiversity and ecosystem loss we can understand it means the loss in various groups of living organisms and their environment. But why does this happen and how do people react to this. Moving on, below are the main reasons of biodiversity and ecosystem loss :-• Habitat destruction According to Cambridge Dictionary Habitat =”the natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives”Destruction =”the act of destroying something or the fact of being destroyed” The loss of ecosystems and biodiversity can be caused by humans and by natural disasters. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and tornadoes. Earthquakes move the land after the intersection of the two plates which causes tsunamis too. Floods can drag along agriculture and tree. This can ruin the view of the place and bury people and animals with debris. Likewise Tornadoes pull out trees from their roots along with biodiversity and swing them away making them injured after touching the ground. The earthquake that happened in Haiti’s capital, Port Au Prince, took over 200,000 lives, kept 2Million people homeless and left 3Million people injured. The infrastructure was completely demolished since 250,000 houses and 30,000 buildings were destroyed. Many countries helped Haiti in raising $195Million.They even received help in building infrastructure again from the US and European Union (3). When habitat destruction is caused by humans, it’s mostly for these factors. The Geist and Lambin study of 2002 explained in detail the factors and their percentage :- economic factors (81% mostly from timber market), institutional or policy factors (78% mostly from pro-deforestation policies), technological factors (70% mostly from lack of technology used in wood factories which could be used instead of logging), cultural or socio-political factors (66% mostly the lack of interest of the public regarding environmental problems), and demographic factors (61% mostly from migration of people into these forest ecosystems). But even marine life can be affected from habitat destruction. The Gulf News online newspaper just claimed that “Marine biodiversity under threat”. Furthermore, it states “To limit further damage in the UAE, experts called for the expansion of protected marine areas along the UAE coastline.” Thabit Al Abdul Salam, the director of the biodiversity management in the Environment Agency of the Abu Dhabi, UAE, said at an international conference on the marine life of the Arabian Gulf “coral reefs protect the coastline from erosion and inundation and are a focus for recreational activities such as diving and fishing. Compounds derived from coral reef organisms have even been used in pharmaceutical products”. I think that the marine life is under great threat due to oil production since it is one of the main reasons behind UAE’s development. Oil production can be very dangerous for the simple factors that oil can be spilled, dumping chemicals into water by mistake and construction of man-made islands and oil rigs can cause water pollution and put the lives of marines life and wildlife biodiversity at risk. The loss of biodiversity can affect us too in terms of having clean food supplies and fresh water as I said in the introduction.• Climate changeClimate change is a change in the usual weather found in a place. This could be a change in how much rain a place usually gets in a year. Or it could be a change in a place’s usual temperature for a month or season.Climate change is also a change in Earth’s climate. This could be a change in Earth’s usual temperature. Or it could be a change in where rain and snow usually fall on Earth(4). Climate change can affect ecosystems and wildlife. For example in summer, the temperature on the land rises so the wildlife migrate to higher levels of land to escape heat to live in a warm or cold environment that they will be able to adapt to. But in the case of marine life, once sea level rises and the fresh water is mixed with salt water, this will cause many deaths unless some species were able to migrate. Death of any species will affect the food chain and if one kingdom is affected in a food chain, then the kingdom that used to feed on them will be affected and it goes on and on. Ecosystems can be affected by climate too but it depends on the current situation. A tropical rainforest is adapted to have heavy rain every month but once the people of the area decide to collect some logs and reduce the trees height, the whole rainforest can be destroyed as heavy rains would break down short trees and may cause erosion to the forest ecosystems. The trees in a tropical rainforest are tall so they can avoid breaking down in situations of heavy rain and it’s almost impossible to cause erosion to the land. The topic of global warming is always connected to climate change. Global warming is another big factor that changes the biology of living organisms and the shape of the land. In extremely cold regions such as sea of ice in the Arctic Ocean, climate has changed the biology of polar bears in the north pole. Over 10 years ago, the Arctic sea ice has decreased in size and thickness.This means that climate change is really affecting the world.The Arctic sea ice is frozen ice on the surface of the water. They usually remain but if they melt they can reform after a year(5). Glaciers indicate climate change really fast because we can tell from their thickness by the snow input and melt output. When it gets warm the melt output increases and we can tell climate has changed(6)The graph above represents the thickness level of glaciers around the world for the past century.We can see that the thickness level decreases by 2meters every 5years. This gives us ideal evidence that climate change gets more serious. Climate change is now a really big dangerous matter which need serious discussion which has happened.The Paris climate agreement is an agreement which was signed in April the 22nd of 2016  about managing greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation etc. It was signed within the United Nations Framework Convention On Climate including the US and EU, and China. The goal is that global warming should not reach more than 1.5 degrees.• Over exploitationAlso called as over-harvesting is the over use of a product. This can damage the product overtime. The products can be natural resources such as : plants (medicinal), fish stocks, forests, etc. Over exploitation can lead to damage of the resource and sometimes extinction.  Over exploitation is a broad heading with different channels under it such as over fishing, over grazing and over logging. What they all have in common is that the resources are being exploited. Over exploitation has been there from the Mauritius era and not just recently. Hawaiian kings used to wear cloaks made from a bird called the Mamo bird. It would take 70,000 birds to pluck off their feathers to make a single ceremonial cloak. This explains why the Mamo bird is now extinct. In the past people were very fond of hunting in the west whether it was for survival purposes or for leisure it was still over- hunting. The biggest North American mammal species would vanish in 1000 after the colonization of the continent. At least 80% of the North American mammals species were extinct because of over-hunting(7). But even biodiversity can over hunt. The predators may over hunt their preys but if this causes extinction of the species, the food web will be interrupted and may cause survival problems to all animals kingdoms. Over exploitation can even affect plants.For example, the footstool palm once over-harvested, the leaves keep getting smaller in size. 26th  March of  2016, the Gulf News newspaper had a headline of ” UAE fish stocks are severely over exploited”. It claims that there are 13 local fish that are being over exploited 5 times more than the sustainable limit. Species such as hamour (orange-spotted grouper), shaari (spangled emperor), farsh (painted sweetlips) and kanaad (Spanish mackerel). These fish have been over-fished way more than the sustainable level. But thankfully the UAE Sustainable Fisheries program was made to implement sustainable fishing. The fisheries of the country will be monitored with advanced research and information about traditional fishing will be discussed and gathered to be implemented. This idea was brought up by the Minister of Climate Change and Environment, Thani Ahmed Al Zeyoudi and the secretary-general of Abu Dhabi Environment Agency, Razan Al Mubarak. “Dwindling fish stocks are a global issue, with two-thirds of the world’s stocks either being fished at their limit or overfished. Scientific surveys and studies have revealed that the UAE’s fish stocks are also being fished above their sustainable optimum. This demands our attention and future collaboration to rebuild fisheries and ensure the survival of this important component of our natural heritage.”said Thani Al Zeyoudi.. Courses of actionBiodiversity can be saved and protected with human care. Some areas should be protected where there’s a limit for human activity and a fine can be paid since it’ll be charged as trespassing. This is an amazing way to avoid exploitation and deforestation. This way resources can be available to all biodiversity and there’s no risk of extinction for any species. People should be educated about biodiversity loss and the impact it has on us. Until then people will realize their worth and respect them. Some people may even volunteer to help. Agriculture should be sustainable since it is much better than grazing so we can avoid over-grazing. A government should keep in mind different procedures before deforestation and look into ecosystem services. Once a biodiversity is at risk it should be under special care and human surveillance. Countries with large populations should develop family planning services and relocate people living in rainforests. ConclusionAccording to me, we should be worried about losing our biodiversity and ecosystems. They both mean a lot to us and a reduction in any of them can start up severe problems. We must learn how to stop habitat destruction, cope with climate change and stop exploiting resources. I feel honored talking about this topic and I hope we make a change in the way we think about biodiversity and ecosystem loss

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