Though was a pioneer in psychosocial development.

Though similar to Piaget, Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s
environment, culture, and peers can influence their development. His sociocultural theory explains that learning
is interactive and impacted by a culture. One cultural tool that comes from his
theory is private speech. It first
begins when kids talks to themselves, which makes their thinking visible. One way
he sees the community furthering a child’s learning is offering aid to them. The
zone of actual development is what
the learner cannot do alone while the zone
of proximal development is what they can accomplish with assistance. Scaffolding is the assistance from a
knowledgeable person that closes the bridge between those two zones. Erikson, on the other hand, was a
pioneer in psychosocial development. His eight stages of development theory
revolved around conflict and identity, where a person is confronted with new
challenges. His theory is unique because every individual experiences these
stages, from birth to death. In contrast, Kolb
made his theory applicable to any situation. He created a cycle that goes
through concrete experience, reflective observation (of the experience),
abstract conceptualization (learning from the experience), and active
experimentation (trying what you have learned). Kolb also incorporated learning
styles to his two continuums based on the cycle. A learning style is a person’s preferred method to gain knowledge.
Each learning style represents a combination of two preferred styles. These
psychologists had differing views on whether a child’s development was based on
their own intelligence or the environment. This was the nature versus nurture debate—whether cognitive development is
determined by a person’s innate qualities (nature) or by their personal
experiences (nurture). At first, it swung towards nature because of scientific
discoveries of nature. During post World War I, evidence seemed to support the
connection between social class and intelligence. After the last World War,
people thought there is a balance between nature and nurture. Although it was a
contrast between the community and the learner, learning environments focus on
how they can balance them and incorporate learning.

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