The decisions in various legal cases, most


The Supreme Court of the United States
is the highest judicial instance. The highest federal court in the United States that has a dominating position
among all U.S.
courts. In 1789 it was established in accordance with Article Three of the
United States Constitution. The Supreme Court mostly reviews the decisions of
lower courts serving as the main arbiter of disputes, but also, it may decide
cases having a political subtext. The most decisive power of the Supreme Court
is judicial review, the ability to check the constitutionality of actions
undertaken by the other branches of American government, on the federal and
state level.

Supreme Court consist of nine Justices, where one is a Chief Justice, and other
eight are Associate Justices. All Justices are nominated by the President and
then validated by the Senate. After being appointed, Justices have a lifelong
term. Justice can resign or retire, but if someone needs to remove a Justice
from the Supreme Court it could be done only in a constitutional way through
the sentencing verdict reached after the impeachment process.

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American courts and judges have a special position among other branches of
government. This position has acquired due to decisions in various legal cases,
most of which relate to the foundation of U.S. constitutional law. Despite
the fact that the President is the Chief Executive appointed with broad powers,
and Congress is the main law-making body, the United States Supreme Court forms
the meaning of the main constitutional rules and norms. First of all the
Constitution was created to make a balanced system, where all branches of
power: the judiciary, the legislature, and the executive would equally take
part in the process of governing the country. However, during centuries there
were many changes that altered the balances system and the separation of powers
doctrine, hindering conception of the Constitution as a document that ensures
equality to the American governmental system. 
Mainly due to the role of the Supreme Court in shaping the scope of
contemporary legal, economic and social relations in the United States these changes have

the Constitution-makers left the Court in vital respects a dependent body. The
political branches nominate and confirm the Justices, a control of the Court’s
composition which results in a somewhat lagging political influence over its trend
of decision, and any party that prevails in the Federal Government through
several presidential terms will gradually tend to impress its political
philosophy on the Court. The court is also dependent on the political branches
for its powers in other vital respects. Its only irrevocable jurisdiction is
original, and that reaches only cases affecting Ambassadors, public Ministers,
or Consuls, or cases in which a state is a party. In all other cases it has
appellate jurisdiction. Also, the Court depends upon Congress for the
appropriation of funds with which to operate. These all add up to a fairly
formidable political power over the Supreme Court. But perhaps the most
significant and least comprehended limitation upon the judicial power is that
this power extends only to cases and controversies. The result of the
limitation is that the Court’s only power is to decide lawsuits between
adversary litigants with real interests at stake, and its only method of
proceeding is by the conventional judicial, as distinguished from legislative
or administrative process. Its inherent methods make it unfit for solving some
kinds of problems which elements for our society have from time to time
expected the Supreme Court to settle. While the President or the Congress can take
up any subject at any time. A court in American system is a substantially
passive instrument, to be moved only by the initiative of litigants.

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