The domestic sewage (contributes 85% of pollution),

The main stream of river Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier (Saptrishi Kund) near Bandar Punch (38° 59′ N 78° 27′ E) in the Mussourie range of the lower Himalayas at an elevation of about 6320 meter above mean sea level in the district Uttarkashi (Uttrakhand). Traversing a total length of 1376 km, the river covers parts of the states of Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi and finally merges with River Ganga at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Its major tributaries (Tons, Betwa, Chambal, Ken and Sindh) contribute 70.9% of the catchment area and the remaining is the direct drainage of main River and smaller tributaries (Rishiganga, Uma, Hanuman Ganga, Giri, Karan, Sagar and Rind). The total catchment basin of the Yamuna River is 3,66,223 km2, which is 42.5% of the total Ganga basin area and 10.7% of the total geographical landmass of the country (CPCB, 2006).  It flows almost parallel to the Ganga and meets the Indo-Gangetic plateau to form the Ganges-Yamuna Doab which is the most alluvial productive area. It possesses steep topography in the Himalayan segment to almost flat in middle and lower segments. The flow of the river varies significantly in different seasons with maximum flow during monsoon period and very little or no water flow during non-monsoon period. The river water is abstracted at different locations for varied uses such as domestic water supplies, irrigation etc. with significant abstraction at Hathnikund / Tajewala and Okhla. The river is blanketed with variety of contaminants which has become an international issue and a cause of concern for environmentalists. The water quality deteriorates as the river flows downstream from the source of origin, particularly in Delhi segment. The 22km stretch from Wazirabad to Okhla barrage, in Delhi has been declared as most polluted stretch of the river (Misra 2010) with approximately 22 drains falling into it. The sources contributing pollution are both point and non-point type. Major sources of pollution includes domestic sewage (contributes 85% of pollution), industrial effluents, agriculture runoffs, dumping of garbage into drains, cattle wading, open defaecation, dumping of puja (ritual) materials into river/drain etc. Various industries (pulp and paper, rubber, glass, sugar, tannery, steel plants, chemicals, plastics etc.) alongside the banks of river discharge the waste directly into it. The segment is severely adulterated with heavy metals (Fe>Cr>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Hg>As>Cd) indicating pronounced anthropogenic activity in region and its purlieu (Sehgal et al., 2012).  The river water is extensively characterized by significant depletion of dissolved oxygen, the condition of eutrophication along with significant loads of pathogen. Various water quality parameters such as pH, Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l), Total Coliform Organism (MPN/100 ml) were all found to be beyond the safe limits making the river ecologically dead and eventually affecting river’s fisheries. The main stream of river Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier (Saptrishi Kund) near Bandar Punch (38° 59′ N 78° 27′ E) in the Mussourie range of the lower Himalayas at an elevation of about 6320 meter above mean sea level in the district Uttarkashi (Uttrakhand). Traversing a total length of 1376 km, the river covers parts of the states of Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi and finally merges with River Ganga at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Its major tributaries (Tons, Betwa, Chambal, Ken and Sindh) contribute 70.9% of the catchment area and the remaining is the direct drainage of main River and smaller tributaries (Rishiganga, Uma, Hanuman Ganga, Giri, Karan, Sagar and Rind). The total catchment basin of the Yamuna River is 3,66,223 km2, which is 42.5% of the total Ganga basin area and 10.7% of the total geographical landmass of the country (CPCB, 2006).  It flows almost parallel to the Ganga and meets the Indo-Gangetic plateau to form the Ganges-Yamuna Doab which is the most alluvial productive area. It possesses steep topography in the Himalayan segment to almost flat in middle and lower segments. The flow of the river varies significantly in different seasons with maximum flow during monsoon period and very little or no water flow during non-monsoon period. The river water is abstracted at different locations for varied uses such as domestic water supplies, irrigation etc. with significant abstraction at Hathnikund / Tajewala and Okhla. The river is blanketed with variety of contaminants which has become an international issue and a cause of concern for environmentalists. The water quality deteriorates as the river flows downstream from the source of origin, particularly in Delhi segment. The 22km stretch from Wazirabad to Okhla barrage, in Delhi has been declared as most polluted stretch of the river (Misra 2010) with approximately 22 drains falling into it. The sources contributing pollution are both point and non-point type. Major sources of pollution includes domestic sewage (contributes 85% of pollution), industrial effluents, agriculture runoffs, dumping of garbage into drains, cattle wading, open defaecation, dumping of puja (ritual) materials into river/drain etc. Various industries (pulp and paper, rubber, glass, sugar, tannery, steel plants, chemicals, plastics etc.) alongside the banks of river discharge the waste directly into it. The segment is severely adulterated with heavy metals (Fe>Cr>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Hg>As>Cd) indicating pronounced anthropogenic activity in region and its purlieu (Sehgal et al., 2012).  The river water is extensively characterized by significant depletion of dissolved oxygen, the condition of eutrophication along with significant loads of pathogen. Various water quality parameters such as pH, Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l), Total Coliform Organism (MPN/100 ml) were all found to be beyond the safe limits making the river ecologically dead and eventually affecting river’s fisheries

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