Difficulties This case portrays the overall confusion

Difficulties in the
recruiting process were not just because of the lack of the responsiveness but
also because of blurred perception on who is Latvian- Russian. For the study
purposes, I asked several friends of mine to suggest any Russian person who
might be interested in my study (an example of the message or mail I sent is seen
in Appendix 1). My exact wording was “a Russian millennial”, however, as it is
portrayed in the table above and more over- as it was discovered in the
interviews, several interviewees do not consider themselves as ethnic Russians.
This case portrays the overall confusion of the right wording of Russian
diaspora in Latvia. Some might find it more appropriate to use a term “Russian-
speaking” diaspora.

All interviews were
conducted from the mid- August to mid- October, 2017, however, the recruiting
process started in mid-July.

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3.1.     Data analysis method-
transcription and narrative analysis

3.1.1.     Technical
considerations- transcript and coding

Interviews lasted
from 28 minutes to 1hour and 22 minutes. All interviews were conducted in
Latvian. All transcripts are attached at the end of paper (Appendix 4).

In general coding is
a basic procedure to ensure data susceptible to tabulation, interpretation, and
analysis (Crittenden& Hill, 1971). Depending on the data analysis method, transcribers
are forced to make a judgment call- how precise the transcript will be; how
accurate or inaccurate the transcription is needed to ensure the accuracy
during interpretation (DiCicco- Bloom& Crabtree, 2006). A very detailed transcription
consumes a lot of time and energy, but it is not always necessary to use such a
detailed transcript for the analysis. As Flick (2009) points out, there is no
need for a particularly precise transcript if it will not be used fully. By
taking this advice, sounds such as laugher or precision of the tone are not
included in the transcript. However, the spoken word is transcribed in detail,
while taking care of structure of the spoken sentence

There are two
dominant modes distinguished of the transcription practise- naturalism, in
which every single detail is noted, and denaturalism, in which such elements of
speech as stutters, pauses, are not included (Olive, Serovich& Mason, 2005).
In this sense denaturalim approach was implemented, because for the
interpretation needs, only the spoken content matters and nonverbal parts of
the interview is not giving an extra insight to the study. However, the
pronounced words (to characterise the accent), words in other languages or
slangs are included and highlighted with another font.

For the analysis
purposes, interview was coded in the themes created when making an interview
plan (Appendix X); it is, coding is based on previous theoretical analysis.
Thematic coding is found as the best coding approach, because of the data
analysis method (narrative), and its respect to the content of the message
(Flick, 2009).

For a greater
validity of the data, coding should be done independently by three or more
persons (Montgomery& Crittenden, 1997); however, due to limited resources,
this was not done in this study. The coding was conducted by one person (the
author of the study) with a great respect to the codes created in the
operationalization process.

3.1.2.     Narrative analysis in
sociology

The main importance
to the narrative analysis is its attention to the individual’s construction of
the reality. People talk about things that matter to them, things that they
find meaningful in their life (Hsiung, 2008). Individual’s statements are
interpreted considering the narrative of it. The goal of the narrative analysis
is to follow the construction process itself- how the respective person is
constructing his or her reality. In the narrative analysis attention usually is
on each individual case (Flick, 20009). Narrative or interpretative approach in
sociology aims to understand particular groups of the society (Reed, 1989). Also,
in this study at first attention is on each case individually, however, all
cases are analyses with a comparison to other cases too.

When analysis and
comparing different cases, usually some ideal types are constructed. “Compared
to these ideal types of processes, the understanding of the individual case can
be made more systematic” (Flick, 2009, p408). Comparisons are made
systematically (in this case, based on thematic themes) to understand the
greater picture and the relationships pointing beyond the individual case. When
analysing similarities and differences between the cases, consideration on how
unique they are or how generalized they could be, are made. Qualitative studies
do not always aim for generalization; however, it should be noted, how specific
cases are in a larger society (Flick, 2009).

A historical
perspective is used in the analysis as well; it reflects how ideas and values
or understanding of the particular objects has changed through the time
(Calhoun, 1998). It is important to the study how interviewees explain their
attitudes towards their identity and events they find important in their
identity construction.

Even if the narrative
analysis idea is to listen to people’s stories, without inquiring theory and
theoretical realms in the analysis, it is not an actual construction of the
narrative. Theoretical basis ot the study leads the narrative analysis (Calhoun,
1998).

There are also some
complications of the respective analysis method. It is highly important to the
researcher to recognize that scientist do define the explanation of the causes
and meaning of the events occurred in the interviewees story, however, there
also might be different meanings or causations of the events (Calhoun, 1998).
People with different backgrounds tend to identify the same symbols or objects
differently; the very idea if the narrative is that different individuals have
different views and understanding on the very same events, also the importance
of the event or object might be very different to different individuals
(Prince, 1982; Weinmann, 1988).

Traditionally,
narrative analysis has been used in the studies on the marginalized groups of
the society; it is used as a “voice” of these groups. Narrative approach does
not aim to just give a voice to the interviewees, the aim is to explore the
role of the narrative in the construction of the reality; individual’s
experiences in its very essence does not exist outside of narrative contexts,
because the world itself is narrativized already. This causes situations when
people tend to tell collective stories. Collective stories tend to give people
the idea that they are not isolated and alienated; collective stories are
created in the socialization process (Ferber, 2000; Maines, 1993). These
stories and narratives are analysed in the next section.

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