Mesenchymal by the embryonic tissue and the

  Mesenchymal stem cells, or (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types e.g osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, and, as described lately, beta-pancreatic islets cells (1-8) .  It  is  accepted  that  these  cells have  the  capacity  to  regenerate  mesenchymal  tissues and  blood  cells (1). These cells have a high potential to mislead the immune system and resistance to the functions of T , B cells and NK cells but the mechanism of action of these cells is still unclear and is believed to be due to its ability to modify the surface of the receptor cells (1) (2).            Bone marrow is the main source and the Statute of the mesenchymal stem cells and the Center for Clinical Research and Altjeribh scientists were able to isolate these cells and study ( 9 ) . These cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro under specific circumstances to adipocyte, osteoblast, and chondrocyte cells (11 ) .However, there are some problems for the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells involves the difficulty of access, few number and lack of differentiation as they age ( 1 ) . As a result, scientists have tended to find other sources to isolate mesenchymal stem cells and the progress of these studies it was possible to isolate these cells from adult tissues ( adipose tisse, and  peripheral blood ) and embryonic tissues ( particular parts of the placenta , and umbilical cord ) (1-7).                                                                 The placenta and umbilical cord is a rich source of stem cells and is known as the placenta is the fetal Umayyad formed by the embryonic tissue and the mother and the umbilical cord is the means of communication between them and  this clear  their importance in the process of embryonic development ( 3) .         In the past, and until recently he disposed of the placenta and umbilical cord as medical waste, but the progress of research and studies Been considered as an important source for stem cell research and isolated in a safe (3) . placenta  Containing the  stem cells and intermediate, which is believed to be embryonic retains some characteristics (7) .     were superior to cells Mesenchymal stem tissue from adult (3) (10) , It also  the umbilical cord contains hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which can be isolated from umbilical cord blood  and Wharton’s jelly , The cord blood is an important source for Stem cell research and use in agriculture for several reasons (5).(3)• It    contains    a    higher    number    of    primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)    per volume unit, which proliferate more rapidly than bone marrow HSC (1) .• collection  of  these  tissues  posesfewer ethical issues since these tissues are usually discarded as  biological  waste  (12) .• Transplantation  does  not  require  a  perfect  HLA antigen match (unlike in the case of    bone marrow) (1) .• The  UC blood has  already been  successfully  used in the treatment of inborn metabolic errors (1) . • There    is    a    lower    risk    of    rejection    after transplantation (1) (10)• the  tissues  are  available  world-wide,and thus it would promote MSC-based research all across the globe (12).          Thus, mesenchymal stem cells has become of interest to scientists and researchers have focused on their  ability to  differentiate and its uses in the field of regenerative medicine ( 1-11 ) . Accordingly, the main objectives of the present thesis were designed .                             

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