Having behind the recognition of objects perceived

gone through the psychology course successfully, I have been equipped with
knowledge on various aspects of human behaviors and the scientific reasons
behind them. Subsequently, in this personal reflection paper, I will select the
topic of memory given its intrigues and interesting findings from the textbook.
Memory refers to the process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information.
It has been described as the means that enable human beings to use the
knowledge that has been acquired over time in their present situations. In this
case, the brain helps in storing information in the form of sounds, images, or
interpretation of various situations. Therefore, it is an essential function of
the brain since it enables human beings to interact appropriately based on past

            Memory can be categorized into various types depending on
the context. For instance, sensory memory involves the ability to recognize an
object after perception. It is deemed as an automatic response that is not
controlled cognitively. George Sperling who conducted experiments to explore
the sensory memory first brought up this concept. He also explained three
subtypes of sensory memory. Iconic memory is responsible for encoding and
storing visual information, echoic memory for auditory information, and haptic
memory for touch perceptions. These types of memories explain the reason behind
the recognition of objects perceived over a short duration.

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            Memory can also be categorized into short-term and
long-term based on the timeline in which recall is allowed. Short-term memory
refers to the information that can be remembered for several seconds or minutes
without having to rehearse. The capacity for this type is limited but can be
increased through what has been described as chunking. It relies on acoustic
and visual coding. On the other hand, long-term memory stores much more
information over a longer period. The capacity is unlimited, and unlike the
short-term memory, the information is encoded semantically. It also involves
episodic memory for capturing more details of an event. The two types of memory
are supported by different regions in the brain through different patterns of
neuronal communication.

            Other categories of memory described in the textbook
include the procedural and declarative types. Procedural memory refers to the
recall on how to do something based on implicit learning. It is evident in
learning motor skills, and it is becoming perfect through repeated practice.
Subsequently, as in the example of riding a bike, the information becomes
automatic and indescribable. On the other hand, declarative memory involves
explicit storage and retrieval of information. It is further divided into
semantic and episodic types based on the principles. In this case, the episodic
memory describes events that were experienced at a particular place and time
while the semantic memory bases its information on abstract knowledge, most
often facts. Consequently, autobiographical memory for events in one’s life
could be attributed to the episodic form of memory.

            Memory is said to undergo the stages of encoding,
storage, and retrieval. On the perception of information through the sensory
system, the brain processes it into a form that can be stored in the brain. It
is encoded visually, semantically, and acoustically as pictures, sounds, or
meanings respectively. Storage is then done on different parts of the brain
according to the duration and capacity in the form of short-term or long-term
memory. The final stage is the retrieval of the information retroactively or
proactively, which depends on how it was encoded and stored. Loss of memory is
associated with disorders such as amnesia and Alzheimer’s disease, in which
some parts of the brain are damaged.

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