IntroductionConcert designing a suitable concert hall comes

IntroductionConcert halls from around the world come in a vast variety of shapes and sizes with several principle architectural ideas utilised. The varying forms range from the ‘shoebox’ style of hall, to (something) Concert halls in the 18th and 19th century were designed specifically for classical orchestra and opera concerts, a contrast to more recent designs around the 19th and 20th century, whereby the halls were designed with a much wider range of events in mind such as (ROCK AND SHIT)To better understand the design of concert halls, it’s important to know the sonic perceptions, such as the loudness, defined as the perceived strength of the sound, the weighted sound.  pressure.     Clarity such as speech intelligibility, clarity is produced due to a high ratio of early sound energy to late reverberation energy, this is expressed as C80 = 10 log (early sound energy/late sound energy)  (Reference) Stopped reverberation defined as the decay of sound when the sound source stops, this Ideally should be enveloping around the audience. Reverberation Time is measured in RT60The art of designing a suitable concert hall comes down to a precise art of acoustical engineering, this process is key to creating a suitable auditorium  for performances of all varieties, musical performances such as classical concerts and opera to live theatre performances on stage, the various elements of acoustical design needs to be applied In order to ensure speech clarity, sound absorption and prevention of reflections along with spaciousness and reverberation.Architetual designShoe Box Vineyard styleThe “Vineyard” design is popular as a concert hall design, unlike the aforementioned shoe box design, with the vineyard style venue, the audience is seated around the stage, reflectors are often placed on the ceiling and side walls reflect energy directly into the audience. This style of venue and reflector placement results in a strong early sound, and low late reverberation and envelopment.There are other room shapes used in concert hall design.The most common is the surround hall where the audienceseating surrounds the orchestra. This style has been used inBerlin Philharmonic Hall, Suntory Hall in Tokyo, and DisneyHall in Los Angeles. Figure 6 shows a sketch of BerlinPhilharmonic Hall. Non-rectangular halls can be designedwith the goal of achieving the same technical factors as thosepresent in shoebox halls. In the areas of reverberation andclarity, surround halls can achieve results comparable tothose found in rectangular halls. Hidaka et al. (2008) recentlypublished a detailed comparison of measured data in thesetwo types of halls. Surround halls are not as successful as rectangularhalls in achieving envelopment, source strength, andminimizing seat to seat variation. This is particularly evidentwith directional instruments such as the French horn, trumpetand piano (with its reflecting board sending the high frequencysounds forward), as well as a soprano voice.The walls surrounding the stage on which the seats are banked help provide the early reflections of sound from the side that are generally considered favourableGewandhaus in Leipzig, Germany, is a prime example of a vineyard style concert hall.Acoustic parameters Background noise Due to the intimate nature of a performance within a concert hall, one of the least desirable issues to occur, is any intruding noise from the outside world. Sound may enter the venue in a number of different ways, one such way is defined as airborne noise, this is the vibrations of particles through the air in the form of sound waves, traveling at 343 m/s. In order to prevent this sound entering the auditorium, the building will require precise  Reverberation timeThe reverberation time in a concert hall is one of the most important aspects of what defines a good concert hall, within such a large space such as a hall, the reverberation time will be very noticeable, due to all of the hard surfaces and the vast amount of space, without appropriate acoustic treatment, the sounds of the orchestra will become lost, with each note played reverberating around the room, it will quickly become an inaudible mess. A room with reflective sound is often described as being ‘live’ whilst a room of which has lots of sound absorption (such as a bedroom or living room with absorbing materials such as furniture) will be described as ‘dead’. In a live room, it will take longer for the sound to die away, In a very absorbent room, in a dead room, the sound will die away quickly. The time for reverberation to completely die away will also depend upon how loud the sound was to begin with, and will also depend upon the acuity of the hearing of the observer. In order to provide a reproducible parameter, a standard reverberation time has been defined as the time for the sound to die away to a level 60 decibels below its original level..  (Paraphrase)When sound energy is transmitted from a source within In a room that contains several reflective surfaces, the reflected sound then becomes added to the direct sound to create the audible sound that the listener will hear. The wall will absorb some of the direct sound energy, while the rest is then reflected back into the room, however, the reflected sound doesn’t contain as much energy as the direct sound, therefore after several reflections the reflected sound soon becomes inaudible. Sound within a room is defined by three distinct types,  the first being direct sound, early reflections will affect the listeners perceived timbre of the direct sound. The reflections that arrive the first milliseconds after the direct sound are known as the early reflection.  A large part of a room’s aural identity lies In the early reflections, Including speciousness, definition and speech intelligibility. Therefore It Is common to want strong early reflections from all sides in a large concert hall. All reflections that arrive at least 60ms alter the direct sound are known as reverberant sound. For a symphony orchestra, the architecture of the concert hall needs to do its work to bring fullness of the sound even to the quietest passages, and be heard all the way to last person in the audience.Diffuser. A rough surface, a diffuser, disperses sound in all directions. Diffusers have many uses.  For example they can remove detrimental echoes caused by surfaces such as the rear wall behind the audience.There are varying surfaces found within concert halls that control the sound the audience hears, most importantly, controlling reflections and enhancing or reducing reverberation time. A reflector is used to reflect the sound off a hard wall, these will be large flat pieces, often made from wood. The reflectors are frequently place above the stage and angled towards the back of the auditorium.Absorbers are less frequently used within concert halls, due to the removal of sound energy, the audience and seating areas primarily act as the absorption materials.(Write about Diffuser)Berliner Philharmonie – Case studyThe Berlin Philharmonie building opened in October of 1963, this concert hall, widely acclaimed for its architecture and acoustics lies just west of the former berlin wall, it became part of the new urban centre just after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its unusual design, a  tent-like shape and very distinctive bright yellow colour makes it one of the city’s landmarks and tourist attractions. Despite the initial skepticism over the choice of design, it has now become a benchmark, of which concert halls across the world are compared to.  For the first time in the history of architecture, the design of a concert hall had to fulfill not only construction guidelines related in this case to the location behind the façade of a Gymnasium from the 19th century Gründerzeit but also precisely formulated acoustic demands, specifically a two-second reverberation  (Refernce) Symphony Hall – Birmingham, United KingdomRegarded as one of the best concert halls in the UK, Symphony hall opened in 1991, its design is based on Wiener Musikverein, a famous concert hall in Austria. The venue features a reverberation chamber, according to the official Birmingham symphony hall website ‘The reverberation chamber is a 12,700 m3 void equivalent to 50% of the Hall’s volume. A series of huge, concrete doors open from the Hall and can be adjusted to create the required degree of echo.’ (Website reference) (Reference reflectors) The reflectors make the sound from all instruments louder and orchestras now prefer to have the reflectors at about 14m above the stage, which is where the reflectors in the Birmingham Symphony Hall have been placed

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