Polyphenols are the most important bioactive phytochemicals

Polyphenols are
the most important bioactive phytochemicals because they exert a  multiplicity of
biological activities and beneficial health effects including inhibition of
some degenerative diseases for the human such as cardiovascular diseases,
cancers, reducing plasma oxidation stress and slowing aging (Zhang et al.,
2015). Several studies recorded polyphenolic improvement
in oxidative status in the cerebellum, preventing age-related memory decline and improvement in
motor and cognitive performance (Jagla and Pechanova, 2015).

Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 60 species, among of them Vitis vinifera, belonging
to family Vitaceae (Bordiga, 2016). Vitis vinifera leaves are
used in traditional food (dolmathes) in some Mediterranean countries. They are
composed of a wide range of polyphenols compounds including: anthocyanins,
hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric esters, flavonol, flavan-3-ols, and organic acids (Guler and Candemir, 2016). Due to their astringent and
haemostatic properties, they are used in traditional medicine for treatment of
diarrhea, hemorrhage, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, the inflammatory disorder,
pain, hepatitis, and free radical related diseases (Aouey et al., 2016). Also,
they showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic,
hepatoprotective, spasmolytic, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and antimicrobial
activities (Guler
& Candemir, 2016 and Katalinic et al., 2013).

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previous studies (Borai et al., 2017 and Rizk et al., 2018) observed that the
administration of Vitis vinifera hydroacetonic extract (100
mg/kg b.wt. daily for 21days)  to healthy old aged
rats showed significant decrease in time to achieve the task as
compared to the negative control group (T-maze behavior stress). This result accompanied with a significant decrease in serum homocysteine (Hcys) level as well as significant
decrease in tail length of comets,
DNA intensity (tail intensity) and tail moment were detected as compared to the negative
control group (Borai
et al., 2017). Also, hydroacetonic extract showed significant reduction
in amyloid ? (A?), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein
carbonyls (PC) levels as well as significant reduction in total
cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG)
and sphingomyelins (SM) levels as compared to the negative
control group. On the other hand, the
oral administration of hydroacetonic extract to healthy old aged rats showed
insignificant change in Ach/AchE, dopamine levels (DA), serum Total Antioxidant
Capacities (TAC), total lipid (TC), phospholipids level (PL), phosphatidylcholine (PCh)
levels and brain total protein content (TP) in
healthy negative control rats (Rizk et al., 2018). These results confirmed by
histopathological examination of brain sections which showed well-preserved histoarchitecture without any histopathological findings in the cerebral

Furthermore, our preceding studies
demonstrated that the administration of AlCl3 (17 mg/kg body weight daily for 4 successive weeks) induced
neurotoxicity in aged rats with a significant decrease in brain/serum (ACh),
(DA), (TAC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and (PL) serum levels. Also,
it exhibited significant increase of brain/serum
(AChE), (IL-6), (Hcys), (MDA), (NO), (PC), (A?), and lipid profile including (TC),
(TL), (TAG) as well as (SM) and (PCh) as compared to
control values. Interestingly, the treatment with hydroacetonic extract (100 mg/kg b.wt. daily for 21days) was ameliorated disturbances in cholinergic and
dopaminergic neurotransmissions as well as oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in
Al induced Alzheimer rats (Borai et al., 2017 and Rizk et al., 2018).

It’s worth
to be mention that aluminum (Al) was known as an environmental toxin, caused oxidative stress through multiple mechanisms led
to an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants (Sies & Jones, 2007). It was
known to accelerate oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, extracellular Ab
generation and aggregation, and neurofibrillary tangles. Al-induced AD rat
model was widely used to explore the aetiology and therapeutic strategies of AD

Here in, the study deal with the
optimization of the polyphenolic extraction method from V. vinifera cv.
Flame Seedless leaves including their   antioxidant activity and chemical composition 
to clarify the principle for selection of hydroacetonic extract for
treatment Al neurotoxicity in our previous studies. As well as its chemical composition versus
our previous neuroprotective on Alzheimer and aging
diseases studies, the structure-activity
relationship will be discussed.

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