Ted consequence of relative deprivation of the

Ted Gurr (1970) defined
relative deprivation as a distinction between what the individual think he
deserves and what he believes he could get. To put it differently, it is a
disparity between ambitions and accomplishments. To illustrate, accomplishments
in education might fuel ambitions of the younger generation but they disappear in
frustration from unemployment which can produce in a large-scale social unrest.

Indeed, there are multiple factors to consider, such as ethnical and regional
boundaries, societal classes and proportion of minorities. For instance, Maluku
is a province of Eastern Indonesia that experienced violence in so called
“Maluku Wars”. It was more an intensified violence between neighbouring
religious group of Christians and Muslims rather than an individually motivated
act of rebellion (Goss, 2000:9-10). The
Christians were originally privileged and the process equalization left
Christian to feel deprived against the growing political and economic influence
of Muslim group. As a consequence, Indonesia occurred in the bloodiest
religious unrest in its history. The revolt was a consequence of relative
deprivation of the Christian group in their expectations to remain their
traditional privileged status quo and the Muslim group accomplishment to
achieve equalization.

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Polarisation

A similarly to relative deprivation, Esteban and Ray (1994) analyse an occurrence of polarisation, which
can be observed when two groups features a significant inter-group
heterogeneity in combination with intra-group homogeneity. Therefore, economic
polarisation can be presented in traditionally homogenous societies and in
contrast, ethnic polarisation can be presented in economically more equal
societies. However, Østby (2008:144) notes that
in general, economic inequality is not satisfactory cause of violent conflict
but instead, a hybrid model that combines both types of polarisation. Esteban
and Ray (1994) primarily identifies the structure of tensions. As a result,
they provide an explanation that polarisation is an outcome related to the
tension that group of individuals feel from one another, such a tension is
powered by the feeling of within-group identity. Moreover, the authors
highlight the fact that ethnic polarisation involves only few ethnicities
within a region. If a regional society consists of a large number of
identities, then it is more accurate to use term ethnic fractionalisation. As a
consequence, it is polarisation that initiates the violent conflict rather than
societal fractionalisation either in ethnic or economic structures (Reynal-Querol, 2005).   

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