The families would meet and converse in

           The houses being quite different, still share the same building system. The lower floors stand as sculptural volumes forming a central core around the stairs and chimney. The chimneys stand in the centre of the living space. This being an evocative characteristic of traditional Eastern European architecture.3 In comparison, this was one of Frank Lloyd Wright many focuses in his design concept. Wright is often quoted saying, “The hearth is the psychological center of the home”.4 By making the fireplace the focus of the living area, it signified that the chimney was heart of the house and families would meet and converse in that common area. He believed the Hearth of the home is the fireplace and within that space no evil should be spoken.5 3 Making the fireplace the center point of the house links each individual space as one unit. In contrast to the rigid and boxy nature of the exterior, the partition walls within the house create fluid movements within spaces. Regardless of the thick walls, light shines abundantly coming from the many windows and openings as well as the soles of the bedrooms.           After the World War II in 1945, most Parisians were living poorly. The economy was failing, Industrial as well as Agricultural production ran on 40% of the initial amount before the war and housing in high demand. About 400,000 buildings during the war were destroyed with the number damaged buildings about five times.6 Between 1950 and 1960, the rise of modern architecture had come to place. Like many countries, France had gone through a series of different architectural styles. From the subtle Romanesque to the gory Gothic, going onto Renaissance, Classicism, Rococo to Art Nouveau and Industrialism. Thus, the country had made the addition of highways, skyscrapers, and thousands of new apartment blocks introducing the Modernist style to its architectural scape. One would imagine that the appearance of the Maison Jaoul would to follow the trend, however, it takes a very different approach. Recovering from the war, basic needs were hard to come by. Materials were very expensive, therefore influencing the style of the house. This in turn breaks the entire series of Purist villas Corbusier designed in the early 20’s. 6 favouring the crude nature of paintings done by Jean Dubuffet, it was easy to persuade Andre Jaoul to the aesthetics Corbusier proposed.He stated, “we appreciate the rough texture of exposed brick, joints coarsely mortared by the mason, whitewash laid over the brickwork…”. He estimated that about 20% on expenses would be saved exposing its structure and materiality.7           The main design concept for the Maison Jaoul was formulated many ideas. Most importantly by his Modulor man and Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture. The Modulor influenced the proportions of the house. Each house spanning at 7 ft. 6 in. by 12ft with a height to the soffit carrying horizontal bearers standing at 7 ft. 6 in.8 On the other hand, Corbusier’s famous concept ‘the Five Points of Architecture’ is a list of important points an architect must be aware of to provide occupants with healthy conditions. The points are: Pilotis, roof garden, free facade, free plan and horizontal windows. Formulated in 1926, it is very apparent in his works.9 7 8

2. aged 17 to 24, 420 male

2.    College
students’ sleep patterns and what can disturb their sleep.

3.    It
was an observational study.

4.    The
variables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,
sleep patterns and habits, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.

5.    Sleep
habits and patterns, and physical, psychological, and emotional facts
were predictive variables.

6.    Behavior,
academic performance and fatigue were
the predicted variables.

7.    The
purpose of this study was to portray what the causes of lower sleep quality and patterns of sleep in
college students.

8.    The
participants were students aged 17 to 24, 420 male and 705 female. This study
was performed at a university in the Midwest. These students were either
entered in a draw for gift certificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a
class credit for certain psychology courses. Of these participants, most were
Caucasian at 86%, and the rest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African
American at 2%, biracial at 2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and
Hispanic at 0.4% (3% did not specify or chose other).

9.    The
following materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index which
measures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3
being the worst. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale analyzes eight factors, checking
how tired the participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale,
3 being the sleepiest. The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale where
participants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00
p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level of
stress. The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feel
depression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.

10. An
email was sent to the eligible students and a survey was kept online in the
middle of the semester for a period of 4 weeks. After finishing the survey
students could go to a different site to enter the raffle.

11. The
result was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well as
poor sleep quality. Inferior quality sleepers have higher negative mood scores
and more illness. These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingest
more prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleep
quality was reported to be stress.

Nina The song was then first sung

Nina Simone is
well-known African-American singer and activist during the Civil Rights
movement. She became one of the most important voices in American history. She
was not afraid of expressing how she really felt to her audience. Her song
“Mississippi Goddam” shows how much Nina Simone was not afraid to use her
status to sing about political issues.


Goddam” is Nina Simone’s response to the murder of civil rights activist Medgar
Evers and the bombing of the 16th street Baptist church in
Birmingham, Alabama. The song was then first sung in Carnegie Hall in 1964, in
which majority of the audience was white audience.


When Simone began
to sing the song she told the audience that the song was “a show tune, but the
show hasn’t been written yet.” The song then begins with Simone singing “Alabama
has got me so upset, Tennessee has made me lose the rest. And everybody knows
about Mississippi Goddam.” As Simone is singing, she is playing a rather happy
piano instrumental. Even though the song has a rather joyful tune, there is
nothing happy in Simone’s lyrics.  


Nina Simone
wrote and sang this song because she wanted her audience to know about the
injustice and discrimination African-American people were facing with at the
time. When Simone performed “Mississippi Goddam” in 1964, it was during the
height of the Civil Rights movement. I believe Simone wanted to address this
issue because she felt that people were dismissing the fact that people were
being killed all because they wanted equality. 

I be done by machines as well

 I am an engineering undergraduate and have a job of systems
engineer. Future is not set in stone but in future I see myself working on the
projects which have relevance and cutting edge technology. I also aspire to
become an established public speaker and act as a motivational speaker and act
as a performance coach. Like I mentioned earlier my job is also under threat,
not right now but eventually it will be. For what I do, can be done by machines
as well and they won’t ask for pay checks and yearend bonuses. So how will I
stay economically relevant? The answer is simple. I will make myself
irreplaceable. When AI becomes the cutting edge thing of the future then I will
prefer to be in the mix of it all rather than be a spectator. I plan to help
the machines learn better and work better by writing  better scripts for automation. Researching
for this work piece has made me realise a few things about the whole process of
script writing and how I can help it improve.

is done by writing scripts to embed into new structures. This typically leads
to two problems. The first one is diversity. Usually, those tasks need to be
automated which are repetitive and are done under the assumption that nothing
about them will change. This rarely happens as not only does the technology
versions change but so do the policies as well. The second problem is what I
like to refer as “infinite scaling”. The end to end processes, that need to be
automated, typically consist of multiple if-else selections, where too many
situations need to be addressed to handle automation. Solving these scenarios
is what present day researchers and engineers are associated with and I plan to
do the same in the future.

Being a
public speaker puts a person in direct touch with people and it involves good
communication skills and ability to understand what the crowd expects of you
and how you can deliver that to the best of your abilities. It isn’t a job
which is under the threat of being automated in the near future but like I said
before future is not set in stone and so the possibilities stay endless. And
considering that this field also comes in the radius of the machines, I would
do well to be prepared and be at my absolute best. Technology and AI itself can
serve me in this process by making me a better speaker. For example, there is a
mobile application called Orai available on iOS platform, which uses AI to
improve public speaking skills. It takes one’s speech as input and runs it next
to Toastmaster’s data base which is an international club for public speaking
and uses its modules to improve the speaker by giving necessary feedbacks on
parameters like timing, number of fillers(words like ums and ahs) the person is
using and should reduce. I plan to use technology like that help me grow in
this field as well and make sure that I am not replaceable.

It’s high
time that we get creative as a society and bring out our best versions before
the machines bring out theirs. As Sydney J Harris said, “The real danger is not
that computers will begin to think like men, but that men will begin to think
like computers.”


According or are abandoned in hospitals; who

According to Section 725 of the McKinney-Vento Act, the term “homeless children and youths” means individuals who lack “a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and includes children and youths: who are sharing the housing of others due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; or are abandoned in hospitals; who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and who are migratory children who live in one of the above circumstances.”  (U.S. Department of Education, 2004, September 15)Under this act, homeless students who move can remain in their home school if that is in the student’s best interest. The student’s home school could mean the school the student attended when living in permanent housing or the school student was last enrolled. This includes preschools.  However, if it is in the student’s best interest to change schools, enrollment in a new school should take place immediately for the homeless student.  Normal enrollment requirements can be waived if necessary.  The local school district must provide transportation to or from a student’s school of origin. Parents, guardians, or local liaison can make this request.  Access to services such as special education services, preschool, school nutrition programs, language assistance for English learners, gifted and talented programs, and before and after-school care must be provided to the homeless student that are eligible. If a student is classified as an unaccompanied youth specific protections can be afforded such as school enrollment without proof of guardianship. Parents, guardians, and unaccompanied youth also have the right to dispute an eligibility, school selection, or enrollment decision.  School districts can receive grant funds to aid them in meeting the requirements of this law. In Mississippi, the Department of Education has made the information regarding these grantees available for public view on the website.  Many of the schools in the Delta Region of Mississippi have been recipients of these funds to support them in providing services for students in poverty. Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). According to U.S. Department of Education (2017, January 18), the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was signed into law in December 2015. This law replaces the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). The focus of ESSA is a commitment to equal opportunity for all students.  ESSA includes provisions that will help to ensure success for students and schools. There are several goals of the law. One of which is to advance equity by upholding critical protections for the disadvantage and high-need students.  According to the National Conference of State Legislatures (n.d.), advances equity by upholding critical protections for America’s disadvantaged and high-need students (Title III: ELL; Title VI: Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native Education programs; Title VIII: education for homeless children and youth). This law requires high academic standards for all students to prepare them for college and careers.  It also ensures that vital information about the annual statewide assessments that measure progress toward the high standards be provided to the families and communities as well as educators (Title IV: 21st Century Schools). ESSA expands the increasing access to high-quality preschool (Title IX: includes the Preschool Development grants). With ESSA, the accountability expectation is maintained with the focus is to ensure positive change in the lowest-performing schools, where groups of students are not making progress, and where graduation rates are low.Title I, Part A (Title I) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The local education agency targets the Title I funds they receive to public schools within the district with the highest percentages of children coming from low-income families. Generally free and reduced lunch counts are taken into consideration when distributing these funds. Generally, schools must focus Title I services on a student who is failing or at risk of failing to meet State academic standards. Title I is designed to help students served by the program to achieve proficiency. This measure of proficiency is based on State academic achievement standards.If a school enrollment of  40 percent of children or more come from low-income families, the school is eligible to use Title I funds for schoolwide programs are meant to improve achievement for all students are are  designed to upgrade their entire educational program. However, the target is still the lowest-achieving students. If a school enrollment is less than the 40 percent schoolwide, may offer a “targeted assistance program.”  This is where schools identify the students who are failing or at risk of failing to meet the State’s academic achievement standards. These schools design an instructional program to meet the needs of those students. Both schoolwide and targeted assistance programs must use scientifically researched based  instructional strategies and implement parental involvement activities.Under Title I, the local educational agency are also required to provide services for eligible private school students. Participating local educational agency are required to provide eligible children attending private elementary and secondary schools, their teachers, and their families with Title I services or other benefits that are equitable to those provided in eligible public schools. The collaboration of services must be developed with the officials of the private schools. The Title I services for private school participants must be designed to meet their educational needs and supplement the educational services provided by the private school.

Prices independence), a record volume of worldwide

were stable between 2011 and mid-2014.

At the same time, US oil
production nearly doubled from 2008 levels and approached the world-leading
volumes of Saudi Arabia and Russia, due to the substantial long-term
improvement and spread of shale “fracking”
technology in response to the years of record oil prices. These developments
led in turn to a plunge in US oil import requirements (moving closer to energy
independence), a record volume of
worldwide oil inventories, and a collapse in oil prices that continued into early


In spite of global
oversupply, on 27 November 2014 in Vienna, Saudi Oil Minister Ali

A year later, when OPEC met
in Vienna on 4 December 2015, the organization had exceeded its production
ceiling for 18 consecutive months, US oil production had declined only slightly
from its peak, world markets appeared to be oversupplied by at least 2 million
barrels per day despite war-torn Libya pumping 1 million barrels below
capacity, oil producers were making major adjustments to withstand prices as
low as the $40s. hundreds of world leaders at the Paris Climate
Agreement were committing to limit
carbon emissions from fossil fuels, and solar technologies were
becoming steadily more competitive and prevalent.

In light of all these market
pressures, OPEC decided to set aside its ineffective production ceiling until
the next ministerial conference in June 2016.

As 2016 continued, the oil
glut was partially trimmed with significant production offline in the US,
Canada, Libya, Nigeria and China, and the basket price gradually rose back into
the $40s. OPEC regained a modest percentage of market share, saw the
cancellation of many competing drilling projects, maintained the status quo at
its June conference, and endorsed “prices at levels that are suitable for
both producers and consumers”, although many producers were still
experiencing serious economic difficulties.


In 2017, As OPEC members grew
weary of a multi-year supply contest with diminishing returns and shrinking financial reserves, the organization
finally attempted its first production cut since 2008.

The agreement covered
the first half of 2017. Starting January 2017, it will produce 32.5 million
barrels per day. Indonesia announced another “temporary suspension”
of its OPEC membership, rather than accepting the organization’s requested 5
percent production cut. Russia, not an
OPEC member, voluntarily agreed to cut
production. OPEC was struggling to
maintain market share. Its share fell from 44.5 percent in 2012 to 41.8 percent
in 2014. That’s because of a 16 percent increase in U.S. shale oil production. As the oil supply rose, prices fell from $108.54
in April 2012 to $34.72 in December 2015. That was one of the biggest
drops in oil price history.
OPEC waited to cut oil production because it didn’t want to see its market share drop
further. It produces oil more cheaply than its U.S. competition. The cartel
toughed it out until many of the shale companies went bankrupt.

Saudi Arabia especially
began producing at record levels in an attempt to bring prices down to a level
that would make higher-cost U.S. shale production unprofitable. U.S. shale
production did indeed drop, however, the slowdown in China hit demand bringing
prices down more than had been anticipated finally bottoming out at a 14-year low of USD 22.5 per barrel in January of 2016

Prices fluctuated
around US$50/bbl, and OPEC in May 2017 decided to extend the new quotas through
March 2018, with the world waiting to see if and how the oil inventory glut
might be fully siphoned-off by then. In December 2017, Russia and OPEC agreed
to extend the production cut of 1.8million barrels/day until the end of 2018.

I am. I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

I am.

Hello, found out that I was not

Hello, my name is Shams

I´m a 16 years old girl. I´m a teenager. Teenagers feels the same. Many teenagers feels like they´re different from others or that they´re all alone in this world. They feel like no one understands them, and I know that because I´ve been there myself, but I found out that It was not just me; I found out that I was not the only one. Rarely you´ll hear about teenagers who commit suicide because they can´t handle the feeling they have, that feeling that makes you cry every night until you fall asleep. But there is also some others that end up committing a crime, because their friends were like “come, let´s do this” because teenagers love action, but he/she didn´t want to commit the crime she/he ended up committing, the reason why teenagers commit crimes is for different reasons, like if they steal, it´s because they can´t afford to by the things they steal or because they´re really bad at saying no to their friends they commit a crime with.

The teenagers, who has blood on their hands, have it for a reason. I´m not saying it´s okay to walk around and take another person’s life, but it could be for a reason like if a guy finds out his girlfriend cheated on him, the guy gets so mad that he doesn´t think straight, he sees red and end up killing them both.

After my opinion, I do not think that teenagers, who commit crimes, are bad people. I just think that they need to be heard. And I think that they are misunderstood. If a guy kills his girlfriend because she cheated, doesn’t mean that he hates her or that he´s a bad person, he´s just hurt. But there is some people in this world we live in that kills others because they´re mentally ill, and I feel bad for them, because they can´t think straight. I do not think that anyone in this world is a bad person, they probably just have some problems with themselves and it could be the way they grew up at home.

But at the end we are all humans, some of us are just misunderstood

Despite the ranking. The reason for that

Despite the increase of
FDI, Hong Kong’s position on the world rating of FDI recepients has fallen from
two to four since 2014, due to the even higher increase of other countries’ FDI
receipts. Figure 6 shows where most of Hong Kong’s FDI originates from, with
the British virgin islands and the Cayman islands leading the ranking. The
reason for that is, that companies channel their income through Tax havens like
the cayman islands where no actual operation is conducted (Santander trade portal).  

The overall economic
well-being can be attributed to various factors. Especially the good
international relations and the facilitaded trade have a positive effect on
Hong Kong’s capitalist economy. Additionally, other factors are in favor of the
region’s development. Among these are the tax rates, applicable within Hong
Kong. There is no capital gains tax or inheritance tax and especially the absence
of capital gains tax is very attractive for investment. The corporate tax rate
is 16.5 % and the standard personal tax rate lies at 15 % which both can be
considered low to average. It should be mentioned here, that by renouncing tax
on capital gains, the government feeds the impression among the people, that
powerful organisations or individuals, who further increase their property are
favored over ordinary people (BBC).

In order to fully
understand the economic situation, additional factors must be considered. On
the positive side it should be mentioned, that Hong Kong is on rank 15 of the
least corrupt nations out of 175 countries according to the 2016 corruption
perception index (Transparency International). Moreover, the foreign exchange,
being the second largest in Asia, plays an important role. The currency, Hong
Kong Dollar, is pegged to the US Dollar at a rate of 7.8 which can also be
considered positive, because it reduces the risk of large fluctuations. The
situation can be viewed critically though, because it also means that the
currency value will not move, as it normally would, along with the economic
development of Hong Kong (Russel 2017). The unemployment rate also gives a
positive image since it is rather low with 3.1% despite the density of the
population (Tradingeconomics 4, 2017).

Some negative elements
should also be mentioned, starting with the interest rate which is currently
1.75% (Tradingeconomics 5, 20017). While this is not extremely high, the
interest rate is higher than for example in Europe (currently 0%), which can influence
the decision for investment in Hong Kong, because borrowing money is more
expensive. Another point to be considered is the minimum wage. While the author
generally supports the idea of minimum wage, it is mentioned as a negative
factor, because it is very low with only 34,5 HKD, equivalent to 4.41 USD (Tradingeconomics
6). This is also an indicator for another negative factor, namely the huge
income inequality. Statistics show that despite government efforts, on average

the richest households
earn about 44 times as much as poor families do (Yau and Zhou 2017). Along with that, society
faces another problem concerning the housing situation. Because Hong Kong is so
densely populated, housing space is very rare and extremely expensive, making
it diffucult for people with average or low income to afford apartments (Ng
2017).  8 Foreign Direct Investment

While FDI can be
considered a factor of the economic situation, it is evaluated seperately
because of its high importance for Hong Kong. Hong Kong receives a lot of
foreign direct investments every year and the amount has increased over the
last years to an equivalent of 108 billion USD, as can be seen in figure 5 (Tradingeconomics
3, 2017).

“If my father, I have nursed a

“If you have built castles in the air,
your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the
foundations under them.”

Henry David Thoreau


father always says that management is all about choosing breadth over depth and
results over perfection. Inspired by my father, I have nursed a castle in the
air since 9th grade: to carve a career in management for myself. I
believe a Master’s from the prestigious Rennes School of Business will help me
put a solid foundation under my professional castle. My journey from being a
wide-eyed school boy to submitting an application to Rennes School of Business
outlines my motivation and preparation for a career in management. I intend to
specialize in International Marketing. I believe it is the brain, heart and
soul of any industry in the globalized world. Today, the boundaries between
countries are swiftly vanishing away, so the understanding of marketing
requires a more holistic and international view of the industry.

I had
my first taste of management when as the house captain in my school I was
involved in organizing different events. Again in college I was a student’s coordinator
for two years in Society of Electronics & Communications Engineers (SECE)
and organized technical and cultural festivals. Whilst being an active member
of the organizing committee of my college, I realized isn’t getting sponsors
for your college event close to marketing? Isn’t organizing your school’s
cultural fest a part of management? Isn’t helping the audience a form of
customer service? Answers were in front of me and that’s when I decided to
pursue my career in International Marketing.

graduating from Galgotias University, I started working at Wipro Limited as a Trainee.
Soon after completion of my training I joined the business side of the company
interacting with clients, providing them customer service and tailor made
solutions. I worked with many international clients from diverse domains to
develop products and processes, R, conceptualizing, design,
documentation, etc. The constant interactions with clients, understanding and
delivering their requirements on time developed a very strong customer
relationship and project management skills. The position is versatile and
reports direct to the Delivery Head. This allowed me a ringside view of the
decision making process in the company and the role of Delivery Head in the
same. The position also taught me to consider all facets of a project from
inception to completion and to tackle problems using different approaches and
team work. During this tenure of mine, I received an extensive amount of
knowledge of B2B industry, providing customized solutions to clients. In
addition, working on several projects concurrently has further honed my time
management and prioritization skills. I also organized various events or
cultural activities at both project and organizational levels. My experience at
Wipro has been a lesson on how a leader planned and achieved world leadership
in its field and became a billion-dollar company; how it generates profits
worldwide using different management techniques in different cultures and how
it motivates its workforce in 54 countries.


doubt a Master’s degree in International Marketing will open the door of
opportunity for me in every field. But my interest strongly lies in
Information-Technology / Technology / Telecommunication sector not only because
my previous work experience and academics are into it, but the knowledge which I
would be imbibed with during my studies, I would be implementing in the
mentioned industries. As seen in today’s environment, these industries are the
driving factor for any global economy. So, the knowledge I would get working in
these industries would serve as a bolstered foundation for any industry. After
completion of my studies I want to be a Marketing Manager/Product Manager where
I can handle the marketing/product management activities of the assigned
product(s) of an organization. Climbing up the rungs of the corporate ladder
with a diligent attitude, and after gaining valuable experience, I want to
contribute to a larger extent with key decision making in driving and
accomplishing goals of the organization.

On a
Personal Front, I am always keen to help others and relish the bonus of
improving myself. From the age of 10 I have been playing Football, for me it’s
a relaxing passion along with it I have participated and won various Taekwondo
Tournaments. In the beginning of 2011 I volunteered to work for ‘HelpAge
India’, A Non-Profit Organization in India caring for disadvantaged
elderly senior citizens. As there is a saying, ‘The only way to find yourself
is to lose yourself in the service of others’. It helped me to understand
elderly people’s thought and I got to know more about myself. I also like to
contribute to various schools by giving small lectures to school students and
participate in extra-cultural activities, which help in improving my knowledge,
communications skills and boosts confidence. Graduating from the world-renowned
Master’s program at Rennes school of Business will enable me to realize my
castle in the air.

1) bonds with the patients to be

1)      Mental
Health nursing consists of providing support to those people who suffer from
different types of mental health problems 1. The work of mental Health nurses
is usually made up of communicating with patients about their current problems
and thoughts and developing bonds with the patients to be able to understand
them more and by this they are able to develop a way how to care for them more efficiently.
I chose this particular nursing practice for the reason that I was always
interested in knowing more about mental health nursing. My question is about
depression and whether exercise makes a better alternative than


PICO question:
In Patients suffering from depression, is exercise an alternative to


Patients suffering from depression


No Exercise/ Anti-depressants

Reduce/Eradicate depression




2)      Firstly,
in order to carry out the literature search, the site of University of Malta library
website was used, secondly, to further the search the Hybrid Discovery (HyDi)
search engine was used in order to go through all the Library’s printed and
online resources, lastly, to narrow the search further, the appropriate
database had to be found, under the section health sciences both Medline
Complete (EBESCO) and PUBMED central were made use. The Google Scholar search
engine was also used to further increase the search to acquire more articles. These
were chosen as they contain peer reviewed journals, and full text articles
which were also available. On both databases an advanced search can be done.
This is beneficial as to narrow down the search, making it more specific by
choosing inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the results to be more accurate
Boolean operators were made use, these are basic
words like (AND / OR/ NOT/ AND NOT) which are used to integrate the set of
keywords chosen in the PICO question in order for the results to be more
accurate and precise 3. By using these simple words you can find a vast
amount of research and records. These Boolean operators are useful in saving a lot
of time. The keywords that were used throughout the search were ” (depression)
AND (exercise) vs. (medication). Through this research that was conducted it
was found that there isn’t enough studies and articles on this subject.


first literature search was carried out using the PUBMED database, but to no
avail there weren’t any useful articles about depression and exercise versus
antidepressants. Then PUBMED central was used as the second database, here a
research article was found, by Lynette L.Craft and Frank M.Perna, ‘The benefits
of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed’4. On this database another article
was also found, by Jesper Krogh, Carsten Hjorthøj, Helene Speyer, Christian
Gluud, and Merete Nordentoft, ‘Exercise for patients with major depression: a
systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis’ 5, but it
doesn’t actually talk about exercise versus antidepressants, it’s objectives
were to explore the positive and negative side effects of exercise in patients
with depression. 


articles that were found on Medline Complete (EBESCO) didn’t really fall in
line with the results that were wished to be acquired, some would be about
exercise only or antidepressants only. After the search using the databases,
Google Scholar was used as another way to search for more articles, here the
articles where very alike of the ones that were found on PubMed and Medline.


were very few articles in all the databases and through the search engine
Google Scholar which was specific to the PICO question.

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