Should another function altogether. One of these

Should You Move to Bitcoin Cash?

We have witnessed the rise of Bitcoin these recent years. Because of this, several cryptocurrencies have come out as well, either rivaling Bitcoin or serving another function altogether. One of these cryptocurrencies is Bitcoin Cash.

Bitcoin Cash aims to be a peer-to-peer electronic cash that promises decentralization and fast transactions. It is a continuation of Bitcoin after debate in the Bitcoin developer and miner community and has since become a separate cryptocurrency altogether.

While Bitcoin Cash is a very new cryptocurrency, it’s starting to gain miners and users, some of them coming from Bitcoin. But before you start deciding whether to invest in Bitcoin Cash, here’s a look at what Bitcoin Cash is.

The Creation of Bitcoin Cash

Bitcoin Cash is defined as a “hard fork”, meaning Bitcoin Cash resulted from a new set of rules made by some developers from the Bitcoin network. Although Bitcoin Cash is a continuation of Bitcoin, it can no longer apply the rules of Bitcoin, making it a new cryptocurrency.

Why was there a need to create Bitcoin Cash? It’s because Bitcoin network developers and miners debated on how the network can grow and become more powerful as the number of users and transactions increase?

The way Bitcoin transactions work is that miners add a verified transaction to the blocks in the public ledger or the blockchain for the transaction to be deemed complete. When Bitcoin was first launched, its developers placed a 1MB limit on the block size so that no spam transactions can come in.

Soon, Bitcoin became popular, and with it came the increase in the number of users and transactions. The block size limit is not enough to handle all the transactions coming at once, which caused delays in sending and receiving bitcoins. Because of this, miners started implementing the “replace by fee” system where Bitcoin users pay high fees so that their transactions can be prioritized. This, of course, goes against Bitcoin’s features of very low transaction fees.

Bitcoin developers and miners have proposed ways to process transactions faster. The most common suggestion was the creation of forks. Simply put, Bitcoin will be split into two potential paths. One path follows the software rules that Bitcoin is still using (soft fork), while the other path is either a software change or upgrade (hard fork).

As a result, Bitcoin Cash was launched in August 2017. It inherited Bitcoin’s transaction history, but all later transactions became separate.

How You Can Benefit from Bitcoin Cash

Bitcoin Cash shares the same features as Bitcoin in terms of decentralization, ease of setup, anonymity, and fast transactions. Bitcoin Cash users also enjoy the following benefits:

1.       Faster transaction time

Bitcoin Cash has an increased block size limit of 8B, allowing miners to take in and confirm more transactions. Bitcoin Cash users don’t have to wait for minutes before their transactions can be verified.

2.       No “replace by fee” feature

Because Bitcoin Cash as an increased block size limit, miners will no longer have to charge users transaction fees for prioritized verification of transactions.

3.       Replay and wipeout protection

All hard forks are prone to replay and wipeout attacks. Simply put, transactions are maliciously disrupted and repeated in another blockchain. Bitcoin Cash has a replay and wipeout protection feature that allows its users to make transactions with little to no disruption from the original Bitcoin chain.

4.       New transaction type

Bitcoin Cash provides new transaction features that provide the replay and wipeout protection, that improve hardware wallet security, and that make validation of transactions faster without sacrificing the security of the transaction.

How to Get Bitcoin Cash

If you have Bitcoin at the time of Bitcoin Cash’s launch, then you are automatically a Bitcoin Cash user. After the split, all transactions between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash become separate. If you are a Bitcoin user looking into getting Bitcoin Cash, or if you are new to Bitcoin Cash, here are some ways to get the cryptocurrency:

1.       Get a Bitcoin Cash wallet.

Bitcoin wallets don’t accept Bitcoin Cash, so Bitcoin users have to get another separate wallet for Bitcoin Cash. The wallet options are the same—you either get a “hot storage” wallet (a desktop, online, or mobile wallet) or a “cold storage” wallet (a hardware or a paper wallet).

2.       Go to a Bitcoin Cash exchange.

There are several Bitcoin Cash exchanges on the Internet where you can exchange your fiat money or your bitcoins for Bitcoin Cash. The number of Bitcoin Cash exchanges is still limited but is growing in number.

3.       Mine Bitcoin Cash through mining pools or cloud mining.

The process of Bitcoin Cash mining is the same as mining Bitcoin. If you do not have the money or the space to purchase equipment to mine on your own, you can join mining pools and split the rewards with other miners. If not, you can purchase mining power in a mining corporation and earn Bitcoin Cash based on your purchase.

4.       Earn through a Bitcoin Cash faucet.

If you want to earn Bitcoin Cash without the difficulties of mining, there are several Bitcoin Cash faucets available online. All you have to do is complete a task (such as completing a captcha) on that website and they will dispense a very small amount of Bitcoin Cash.

What is Bitcoin Cash is Worth

Bitcoin Cash was worth US$250 when it first launched. At present, Bitcoin Cash’s value US$1,612 and is the fourth most expensive cryptocurrency in the world.

We highly suggest moving to Bitcoin Cash if you’re using Bitcoin or another cryptocurrency. Since its launch, more users and miners are coming in, and resources such as exchanges and wallets are growing in number. You are also assured of faster transaction time and more secure transactions when you use Bitcoin Cash.

To know more about Bitcoin Cash, visit https://www.bitcoincash.org/.

Prompt and the amount of times it

Prompt – You are living in a world where every lie that is spoken creates a scar on the speaker’s body. The larger the lie and the amount of times it is said creates a deeper mark. One day you meet someone who only has one scar, however it is the largest one you have ever seen.He was a great guy for as long as I knew him. I’ve never met anyone else like him and doubt that I ever will. Everyone I’ve met has had the small scars of little white-lies decorating their hands and arms. As years went by some people have opened and reopened old scars and have cut them deeper and deeper every time. People lie, it’s just a fact of life.I wanted to join the military. I wanted to change. I wanted my parents to be proud. All lies. These lies tore away at my shoulders, down my back, and around my abdomen, wrapping around my body to create a deceitful pattern that none should ever see. All that they can see are the small cuts lining my arms.In truth I joined because I had nothing left, a final attempt to escape rock bottom. I was among the best of the best, the brave and successful, I just had to stay invisible. I was a wasp among bees, simply being there was an act of deception. But then he came around. I had more scars than most, and earned what little trust I was given. People were politely curt towards me, but were visibly rigid to him. He didn’t have any of the traditional marks on his hand. At a quick glance you might have thought him the most honest man alive. In fact, most did. A man in his thirties with no scars? That’s as rare as a dragon. More myth and legend than person, yet there he was. Everyone wanted to be his friend. I mean who wouldn’t want someone they can trust in a world of liars? Well, that was before he took of his shirt in the locker room. A scar stretching from his shoulder to his ribs, much like mine but far deeper. It was one small lie repeated over and over god knows how many times.

10 Depression, stress, anxiety lead to many

10 mistakes to avoid if you want to be happyThe way we live life, make
decisions affects our health.  Depression,
stress, anxiety lead to many health issues. It is necessary to know that what
you are doing wrong that prevents you from happiness and of course good health
so that you can correct them and live a healthy and happy life.

1-  Trying to
please everyone

Whatever we
do to make people happy and satisfy, they never will, they can find mistakes in
anything. Don’t say ‘yes’ to anything. Naturally, you will feel unhappy and sad
if you cannot refuse to the work that you don’t want to do. It does not mean
that you should stop helping people, try to determine the people who are really
in need.

2-  Inability to
forgive

Nobody is
perfect, sometimes you made mistakes and sometimes others do. Forgiveness is an
important key to happiness. You carry the burden on the brain and think about
what people did with you and what you did with yourself. Go easy with yourself
and with others.

3-  Neglecting
your creativity

We all have
some hobbies but you ignore it. To feel happiness person should engage
themselves in interesting and exciting things. Conversely, if you neglect
your passion, you can never experience feelings of satisfaction from life.

4-  Worrying only
about the future

It’s a good
idea that we are planning things for future, but it’s not good that we are
totally ignoring the present. It is necessary to concentrate on what can be
done with available resources and feel happy and healthy.

5-  Comparisons

Many studies
prove that constant comparison of ourselves with others deprives us of
happiness. Everyone is unique and great in their own way, you have to accept
the fact you are no less than anybody else.

 

 

6-  Not meeting
friends and family

You can’t
always work and earn money. Sometimes we get so busy that we ignore our family
and friends.  Don’t ignore relations like
friendship, marriage, and family. 

7-   Excessive self-confidence

This
refers to self-confidence based on dilusions. It happens when a person
receives recognition for a certain work and comes to the conclusion that this
automatically guarantees him success in other spheres of life.

8-  Monotonous life

The
same routine that you are not enjoying makes you depressed and unhappy. If you
are expecting any changes and you can’t see it then you must be doing something
wrong.  

9-  Not allowing
yourself to move outside

In free time
you decide to finish the work like laundry, cleaning etc. you rarely go outside
in the sun. Spend some time with nature; it will help you to feel confident and
more energetic.

10-              
“I’m not good enough”

Perhaps
there are some habits that you do not like about yourself. For example,
you would like to be taller, richer, or have a different appearance. You
need to learn to accept yourself as you are

TITLE: used a hot pack to warm

TITLE: COLD PACK AND HOT PACK

1.     
INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND

“Have you ever used a hot pack to warm your
hands or a cold pack on an injury? How can something produce heat or cold
without any microwaving or refrigeration involved? The answer is: chemistry.
Chemical reactions that produce heat are called exothermic. The burning of gasoline in a car engine is an
example of an exothermic reaction.

Reactions that are accompanied by the absorption
of heat are called endothermic. As
an example of an endothermic reaction, when the chemical ammonium nitrate is dissolved in
water, the resulting solution is colder than either of the starting materials.
This kind of endothermic process is used in instant cold packs. These cold
packs have a strong outer plastic layer that holds a bag of water and a
chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that result in an endothermic reaction when
dissolved in water. When the cold pack is squeezed, the inner bag of water
breaks and the water mixes with the chemicals. The cold pack starts to cool as
soon as the inner bag is broken, and stays cold for over an hour. Many instant
cold packs contain ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is a white crystalline
substance. When it is dissolved in water, it splits into positive
ammonium ions and
negative nitrate ions. In the process of dissolving the crystal, the water
molecules “donate” some of their energy. As a result, the water cools
down. How much heat energy is
“lost” when ammonium nitrate dissolves in water? You can measure the
amount of heat that is involved using Equation 1.” (Source: http://www.sciencebuddies.org )

 

 

Equation 1:

q
=  

c
m (T1 -T2)

 

q =
energy, measured in joules (J)
c = heat capacity, measured in joules
per gram per degree Celsius, J/(g°C)
m =
mass of solution, measured in grams (g)
T1 =
initial temperature, in degrees Celsius
T2 =
highest/lowest temperature, in degrees Celsius
J = joules (J), unit of energy
°C =
degrees Celsius

“Equation 1 states that “the amount of heat
energy that is lost when water changes from temperature T1 to the lower
temperature, T2, equals the difference in the two temperatures, times the heat
capacity, times the mass of the solution.”

The heat capacity of a substance tells you how
much the temperature will change for a given amount of energy exchanged. For
water at 25°C, the heat capacity is 4.18 J/(g°C).” (Source: http://www.sciencebuddies.org )

Equation 2:

c
(water) =  

4.18
J
(g°C)

 

c =
heat capacity, measured in joules per gram per degrees Celsius, (J/g°C)
J =
joules (J), unit of energy
g =
grams (g) of water
°C =
degrees Celsius

“Equation 2 says that
“the heat capacity of water is 4.18 joules per gram of water per degree
Celsius.” What this means is that if you add 4.18 J of heat energy to 1 g
of water, its temperature will increase by 1.0°C. Substances other than water
have different heat capacities.” (Source: http://www.sciencebuddies.org )

Throughout
my life, I did once use the cold pack and once use the hot pack. It is all
because I had sprained my ankle when I was about to lift a heavy box and it
swollen right after the accident. My family got a cold pack at home since my
brother is a practical Physical Education teacher just somewhere near my house.
Even though the cold pack did not cure the swollen totally, but it reduced the
inflammation faced by me.

There
was once again, my leg’s muscle suddenly got stiff and I could not move even
inch. All I could do was just held the pain while waiting for my brother to get
a hot pack. It was a relieve though for having him as a brother. After some
minutes, the stiffness reduced and eventually lost.

What
I knew about those two packs is they are made from calcium chloride and
ammonium nitrate. But I did learn that there are many other chemicals that
produced exothermic and endothermic reactions. By investigating the effect of
other chemicals on the temperature of water, I can identify any other chemicals
that can be use for these reactions.

 

 

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION

How
does the effect on temperature of solution over time determine the suitability
of a salt to be used in cold pack or hot pack while the temperature changes
were recorded constantly for 4 minutes?

 

1.3 AIM

            To
investigate the relationship between the effects on temperature of solution
over time and the suitability of a salt to be used in cold pack or hot pack.

           

1.4 HYPOTHESIS

            In making hot pack, the salts that
are suitable to be used are the one which can increase the temperature of
solution after being mixed with water in short time, as well as maintaining the
temperature for a long time or having only little decreases from time to time.
The maximum temperature reached by the salt solution should also relevant to be
hold by skin to avoid scald.

            As for cold pack, the salts used in
making it can cause decrease in temperature of solution in short time after
dissolve in water. The temperature able to maintain for sometimes and increases
only bit by bit for minutes until it reaches the room initial temperature
again.

 

 

2.      METHODOLOGY

2.1  SAFETY PRECAUTION

1.      Wear indirectly vented chemical-splash goggles and
chemical-resistant gloves and apron while in the laboratory.

2.      Handle all glassware with care.

3.      Wash your hands with soap and water before leaving
the laboratory.

 

2.2  VARIABLES

VARIABLE

HOW TO CONTROL

a)      Independent:
The
type of salts

 
Use
different type of salts which are ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride,
calcium chloride, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate and copper(II) sulphate

b)      Dependent:
The
temperature of solution over time

 
Measure
the temperature of the solution for every 15 seconds.

c)      Controlled:
I)       The
weight of salt
 
II)    The
volume of water
 
III) The
time taken

 
Use
same weight of salt which is 5 g for each trial.
Mix
salt with 25mL of distilled water for each trial.
Record
the temperature changes for 4 minutes for each trial.

 

2.2.1       
APPARATUS
AND MATERIALS

APPARATUS

MATERIALS

Distilled water

Copper (II) sulphate

Spatula

Magnesium sulphate

25mL measuring cylinder ± 0.25

Dehydrated calcium
chloride

Digital stopwatch, ± 0.01s

Sodium chloride

Digital weighing scale, ± 0.01g

Ammonium chloride

Thermometer, ± 0.25º

Ammonium nitrate

Calorimeter with lid

Small bowl

 

2.2.2       
PROCEDURE

1.     
Measure 20mL of distilled water using measuring cylinder.

2.     
Pour the measured distilled water into the calorimeter.

3.     
Measure the initial temperature of the water using thermometer and
record it.

4.     
Put small bowl on the digital weighing scale.

5.     
Zero the scale and slowly put down 5g of copper
(II) sulphate using the spatula.

6.     
Pour the salt into the water-filled calorimeter and immediately
close it as well as start the stopwatch.

7.     
Stir the solution gently throughout the process.

8.     
For each 15 seconds in 4 minutes period, measure the solution’s
temperature using the thermometer and record the value.

9.      Dispose of the copper(II)
sulphate solution down the sink.

10. Repeat steps 1 to 8 four
more times to get five trials.

11. Calculate the average temperature
over times and the average amount of energy involved to be included in the
record.

12.  Repeat the steps 1 to 10
by using different salt which are ammonium nitrate,
ammonium chloride, dehydrated calcium chloride, sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate.

 

3.     
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

3.1  QUANTITATIVE

Type of salt

Average
temperature of solution over time (ºC)

Average
amount of energy involve (J)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

Copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4

30.8

36.7

37.1

36.8

36.2

35.8

35.3

34.9

34.8

34.4

34.2

34.0

33.9

33.8

33.4

33.4

33.4

-526.68
± 21.07

Magnesium sulfate, MgSO4

29.8

38.5

39.6

39.5

39.1

39.1

38.9

38.7

38.4

38.0

37.5

37.4

36.9

36.7

36.4

36.2

35.9

-819.28
± 32.77

Dehydrated calcium chloride, CaCl­2

29.8

35.6

35.1

34.4

33.9

33.4

33.0

32.8

32.4

32.3

32.2

32.0

31.8

31.8

31.8

31.7

31.5

-484.88
±  19.40

­Sodium chloride, NaCl

28.6

27.8

27.8

27.7

27.7

27.7

27.7

27.7

27.9

27.9

28.1

28.1

28.1

28.1

28.1

28.1

28.2

75.24
± 3.01

Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl

27.9

19.1

19.1

19.2

19.8

20.6

21.0

21.4

22.1

22.5

22.9

23.1

23.3

23.6

23.7

24.0

24.2

735.68
± 29.43

Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3

28.8

21.9

19.6

20.3

21.4

22.2

22.8

23.4

23.7

24.2

24.6

24.9

25.1

25.2

25.4

25.7

25.8

769.12
± 30.76

 

3.2  QUALITATIVE

Type of salt

Observation

Copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4

Solution turns from colourless to
blue
Blue precipitate formed

Magnesium sulfate, MgSO4

No
changes

Dehydrated calcium chloride, CaCl­2

White
precipitate formed

­Sodium chloride, NaCl

White
precipitate formed

Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl

No
changes

Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3

White
precipitate formed

 

3.3  PROCESSING
AND ANALYSIS

3.3.1       
Example of calculation

i.       
Average temperature of solution
over time (ºC), copper(II) sulphate at 0s

=

=

= 30.8

ii.      Amount of
energy involve (J), copper(II) sulphate

= c m (T1 -T2)

= 4.18 × 20 × (30.8 – 37.1)

=
– 526.68

Where q =
energy, measured in joules (J), c = heat
capacity, measured in joules per gram per degree Celsius, J/(g°C), m =
mass of solution in grams (g), T1 = initial temperature in degrees Celsius, T2 =
highest/lowest temperature in degrees Celsius, J = joules (J) unit of energy and °C = degrees Celsius

 

iii.    Uncertainty, average amount of energy involved in copper(II)
sulphate

Percentage
of uncertainty

a.      
Digital weighing scale =  × 100% = 0.2%

b.     
Measuring cylinder = × 100% = 1.25%

c.      
Digital stopwatch = 16(  × 100%) = 1.07%

d.     
Thermometer, initial temp =  × 100% = 0.81%

e.      
Thermometer, initial temp =  × 100% = 0.67%

Total percentage uncertainty = 0.2 + 1.25 + 1.07 + 0.81 +0.67 = 4%

Absolute uncertainty =  × 526.68J = ± 21.07 J

?, the
average amount of energy involved is (- 526.68 ± 21.07) J

 

3.3.2       
Graph

Graph 1: Average temperature of
solution over time (exothermic)

Graph 2: Average temperature of
solution over time (endothermic)

 

 

 

3.4  DISCUSSION

For the
Graph 1, all three solutions from different types of salt had a rapid increase
for the first 15 seconds. Starting at 30 seconds period, the temperature of
solution of dehydrated calcium chloride decreased until the third minute before
had a plateau for 45 seconds and continued to decrease. As for solutions of
copper (II) sulphate and magnesium sulphate, they still had a little increment
of temperature after 15 seconds and reached its peak when the time is 30
seconds. Copper (II) sulphate solution’s temperature started to decline
throughout the experiment, except for the last 45 seconds, where they already
reached constant temperature. Different with magnesium sulphate solution which
the temperature of the solution decreased for 30 seconds after that and become
constant the next 30 seconds. From 90 seconds period, the temperature of the
solution kept on decreasing until the forth minute. All three types of salt
have the same trend of changes but among them, the temperature changes of magnesium
sulphate solution was the highest, followed by copper (II) sulphate solution and
the lowest was dehydrated calcium chloride solution.

While from the Graph 2, it can be
seen that the three salt solutions all reflect the trend occurs in Graph 1.
They decreased in temperature first before gradually increased again to reach
the room temperature. Sodium chloride solution was clearly shown to have very
small changes of temperature throughout the 4 minutes period. Ammonium nitrate
solution was continuously decreased in temperature for the first 30 seconds and
after that increased steadily till the experiment ended. For the temperature of
ammonium chloride solution, it declined sharply and been constant for 15
seconds. Then, the solution temperature started to increase gradually until the
forth minute.

The changes of temperature were
caused by the loss and gain of energy of the particles of the solution when
they reacted to each other to carry out the reactions. Every substance has
their own heat capacity, and every atom bonding forces are different. Because
of that, the amount of energy involved in a reaction and maximum temperature are
different as well.

4.      EVALUATION

4.1  LIMITATIONS
AND WAYS TO OVERCOME

LIMITATION

WAYS TO OVERCOME

1.      The heat may escape from the
calorimeter just before the lid is placed.

Close
the calorimeter immediately right after the salt is poured into it to
minimize the amount of heat escaped.

2.      Some salts need more water to
allow them to dissolve completely.

Carry out the experiment using much more distilled water
to ensure that all salts dissolved.

 

 

5.     
CONCLUSION

To
identify if a salt is suitable to be used in making hot pack or cold pack, we
need to consider the increment or decrement of the temperature of solution
which reflect the amount of energy involved to complete the reaction.

As for exothermic reaction, all
three types of salt are suitable to be used in making hot pack since they show
increment in temperature when get dissolved in water. They also decrease slowly
by time which is good for hot pack in maintaining the temperature for a longer
time. But, for magnesium sulphate, the temperature it can reach almost 40°C and
the patient may not be able to stand such temperature. To overcome the problem,
a layer of insulator should be placed inside the hot pack to lower down the
temperature.

In making cold pack, the most
suitable salts to be used are ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride because
both of them showed the same trend of temperature changes. They released energy
rapidly to decrease the temperature but take some time to back to room
temperature. The minimum temperatures are also suitable to be hold by our body.
Sodium chloride showed only very little changes in its temperature after being
mixed with water so it is not really suitable to be used in cold pack.
Therefore, the hypothesis was supported.

BORDERS and Pakistan Border, known domestically as

                     

BORDERS between PAKISTAN
and INDIA

The
India and Pakistan Border, known domestically as the international Border
(IB), is a worldwide border strolling between India and
Pakistan that delineates the Indian states and the 4 provinces of
Pakistan. The border runs from the road of manage (LoC),
which separates the Indian controlled Kashmir from
Pakistan controlled Kashmir, in the north to Wagah, which
partitioned the Indian Punjab kingdom and Punjab Province of
Pakistan, in the east. The zero factor separates the Indian
states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to Sindh province of Pakistan, inside
the south.
Drafted and created based upon the Radcliffe line in 1947, the
border, which divides Pakistan and India from each other,
traverses a diffusion of terrains starting
from essential urban regions to inhospitable deserts. From
the Arabian Sea, the naval border follows the route of MANORA Island
of Pakistan to the route of the Mumbai Harbor, within
the South east. due to the fact that independence of India and
Pakistan, the border has been a domain of severe conflicts
and wars between every us a, and is one of
the most complex borders inside the international. The
border’s overall duration is 2,900 km (1,800 mi), in
keeping with the figures given by the PBS; it is
also one of the maximum dangerous borders inside the global, primarily
based on an editorial written in
the foreign policy in 2011.

 

Relations among India and Pakistan have
been complicated and in large part adversarial due
to some of ancient and political events. Relations among the
two states have been described via the violent
partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir struggle and
the severe army conflicts fought among the
2 international locations. Therefore, Pakistan rather overlap
in regions of sure demographics (particularly Punjabi
and Hindustani) and shared fares inherited from the Mughal Empire.
Given that independence, Relations between Pakistan and
India have been characterized via jealousy and doubt. 

Despite the fact that many issues divide the
two international locations, the most sensitive one in
view that independence has been the fame of Kashmir. Born out from
the furnace of hatred, India and Pakistan, the twin brothers have
a history of unique Relations. There’s an awful
lot in commonplace among Republic of India and Islamic
Republic of Pakistan.

The diplomatic Relations advanced soon after
independence but those Relations did now
not ensure precise friendship.
There were severe tries to improve the
relationship—notably, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore
summit but they proved to be not anything except the
wastage of time.

Roots of war

Right
here are some of the highs and lows
in relations among the two counties
1947 – Britain divides its Indian empire into secular
(however especially Hindu) India and Muslim Pakistan on August 15 and
14 respectively. The partition causes certainly one of the
largest human migrations ever seen, and sparks riots and
violence across the location.

1947/forty eight, the blaming technique started
out quickly after the inception of
Pakistan when throughout the world’s biggest mass
migration both states were unable to offer safety to
minorities. 

STATES ISSUE

At that
point there were 680 princely states and
their destiny turned into to be determined in line
with their very own will.
Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir are three of
those states which can be nonetheless a bone
of rivalry among India and Pakistan.
Junagadh turned into composed of 88% Hindu Majority with a Muslim
ruler named NAWAB MAHABAT Khan. The ruler voted for
Pakistan however India did now not accept it on
the plea of heavy Hindu majority.
One the alternative hand, the ruler of Kashmir, Hair
Singh, wanted to join India but most people of
Muslim populace was within the want of Pakistan. Maharaja
Hair Singh made a “precise agreement” with the government of
Pakistan. But, the rumors unfold in Pakistan that Hari
Singh changed into going MAHARAJA to accede with India. The forces of
Pakistan invaded in Kashmir in 1947 and Hari Singh requested India
for help. Indian military violating the provision in
their constitution entered into the jurisdiction of Kashmir.
Hyderabad is one among the biggest states at that time.
It comprises 10 lakh humans in it.
The country is unbiased of others, there
are big industries in it so
this kingdom earns loads and the general
public of populace of this kingdom is Hindu however
the NAWAB of this nation is Muslim so
he wanted to go together with Pakistan however India authoritiesdidn’t permit that kingdom to do
this. when Pakistan turns into unbiased in Aug 1947,
and after three hundred and sixty five days Quaid-e-azam
died and then in the interim of grieve the
Indian army assault the Hyderabad country and positioned stress on
it to align with the India and in that manner India occupied/captured
that 3 states..
1954 – The settlement of
Jammu and Kashmir to India is confirmed via the country’s
constituent assembly.
1957 – The Jammu and Kashmir
constituent assembly approves a charter. India, from
the factor of the 1954 approval and 1957 charter, starts
off evolved to refer to Jammu and Kashmir as a quintessential part
of the Indian union.
1963 – Following the 1962
Sino-Indian war, the overseas ministers of India and Pakistan –
SWARAN Singh and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto – hold talks below the
auspices of the British and individuals regarding the Kashmir
dispute. 
1964 – Following the failure of the
1963 talks, Pakistan refers the Kashmir case to the UN Security Council.
1965 –
Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1965, once more due
to Kashmir trouble…
soon after their independence, India and
Pakistan installed diplomatic members of the family but
the violent partition and numerous territorial claims would overshadow
their dating. Due to the fact that their Independence, the
2 international locations have
fought three predominant wars, one
undeclared struggle and had
been worried in numerous armed skirmishes and navy standoffs.
The Kashmir war is the main center-point of
all of these conflicts with the exception of the
Indo-Pakistan struggle of 1971 and Bangladesh
Liberation conflict, which resulted within the secession of East
Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Indus Water Treaty
1960

Water
is the outstanding blessing of Allah on earth and it
is said Allah talented Nile to Egypt and Indus to
the nation of Pakistan. The main stream of the
Indus at the side of different rivers as Jhelum, Chenab that
flows into Pakistan comes from the state of Jammu and Kashmir. However,
Ravi, Beas and Sutlej have their veins from India.
In reality, Pakistan’s agriculture zone definitely relies
upon on the waft of those crucial water
reservoirs, but India has several other rivers and
water sources to support its agricultural set up.
The sense of reunion changed into articulated by
using Indian leaders from the very first day of independence and
it changed into conspired that the canal head work flowing into
Pakistan would be given to India.
She could build dames over the ones rivers
that circulate Pakistan from India. In short, the making
plans have been completed even before the partition to
create a draught like scenario in Pakistan by
using disconnecting her from the lifestyles giving water streams
on which depends the agro based economy of
the united states.
The dispute over the distribution of water erupted
into disaster soon after the partition of east and west Punjab.
The Partition of Punjab reduce down the rivers and canals that made
Pakistan the decrease riparian and India the higher riparian.
The Indian authorities numerous instances made guarantees that
she would now not intrude and could not move against the
due proper of Pakistan as a neighbor and
the lower riparian. However in contradiction,
they continually moved in opposition to the promises and commonly threatened
to cut the float of the rivers.
India also interfered with the water of river on first April
1948 by way of cutting throughout Ravi and
Sutlej links best after six months of the independence.
Pakistan Become facing acute danger of shortage of
water and agriculture wreck. Pakistani
delegation became sent to India to quell
the problem, but
the situation aggravated daily in place
of improving because of reducing throughout of Indus
River that is considered a livelihood for
the kingdom of Pakistan. India rejected the notion of
Pakistani delegation due to her chauvinist behavior,
Pakistan also gave inspiration to clear
up the problem via the sector financial
institution, but it turned into additionally now
not desirable for Indian leaders because Pakistan was seeking
to remedy the problem at the desk, but opponent was inside
the temper of preventing, to compel the newly born country for
the reunification. A former chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority wrote
in an editorial “No armies with bombs and shell fire may
want to divested a land so thoroughly as Pakistan can
be devastated via the simple expedient of
India’s permanently shutting up the source of water
that preserve the field and the people of
Pakistan inexperienced.
In September 1950 the Indian authorities agreed to clear
up the problem thru adjudication, but demanded that
there ought to be a court docket in
which two contributors ought to be from each aspect and
there would be one neutral chairman. Those proposals have
been regular with the aid of Pakistan. The chairman of
worldwide bank “for production and improvement “Eugene
black took the obligation and made a committee of each aspect to
overcome this problem. Several years elapsed
in looking for the answer of this critical problem between the
2 arch opponents and every day handed like year. For
this reason on September nineteenth, 1960
an settlement was sign between international location
Karachi this is referred to as Indus Water Treaty.
In this settlement the sector bank divided
the complete reservoirs into parts. Beas, Ravi and Sutlej
rivers were assigned to India whilst the rivers Chenab
Jhelum and Indus had been granted to Pakistan. While,
Pakistan needed dams, barrages and canals to make up the loss
which changed into beyond Pakistan’s capacity and cloth strength to construct.
So, it become also decided for the storage of water
Pakistan could be helped to build dams, barrages
and at least seven hyperlink canals in
which Indian could pay 200millions of the full price of
the scheme, while the remaining quantity could be
given by means of the world financial institution, US, Canada,
Australia, New Zealand and other pleasant states of Pakistan.
India was trying from the first actual day of
independence to cripple the newly born country of
Pakistan because the Hindu leaders preferred to suppress
the Muslims community in India. The Hindus had by no
means ignored any opportunity to criticize and defame the
Muslim network. in order that
they attempted numerous times to compel Pakistan inside
the border regions and several instances inside
the valley of Jammu and Kashmir in an effort to create
blockage inside the manner of Indus that to
position question mark on the agriculture bone of
Pakistan. As a result, Pakistan became leaned to choose the
choice of world bank with a purpose to are searching
for out a higher water draft become similarly divided between the
two states on the bases
of decrease and upper riparian
and suitable answer. So, the treaty changed
into signed under the name of Indus Water
Treaty, wherein the water go with the flow changed into equally divided between the
two states on the bases
of decrease and upper riparian.
1971 – Pakistan and India go
to warfare a third time, this time over East Pakistan.
Bangladesh became created out of East Pakistan.
1971 changed into a
black year within the history of Pakistan as
she misplaced its jap wing as India intervened
to desire Bengali humans and seized the Qasim-port. Ninety
thousand Pakistani soldiers surrendered in Bangladesh. India and
Pakistan visit war a third time, this time over East
Pakistan. Hostilities lasted thirteen days, making this one of
the shortest wars in contemporary records.
East Pakistan becomes the unbiased country of
Bangladesh on December 6, 1971.

1972
-.Pakistani prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and
Indian high Minister Indira
Gandhi sign an settlement inside the Indian metropolis of
Shimla, in which both nations agree
to “placed an end to the battle and disagreement which
have hit her to marred their members of the
family and work for the merchandising of
a friendly and harmonious relationship and the status
quo of a durable peace within
the subcontinent”. both aspects agree to settle
any disputes “by means of peaceful way”.
The Shimla settlement designates the ceasefire line of December 17,
1971, as being the
new “Line-of-control (LoC)” among the
two nations and which “shall
be reputable through both sides without prejudice
to the recognized function of either side”.
Nuclear Arm Race
1974 – On may
additionally 18, India detonates a nuclear tool at Pokhran, in
an operation codenamed “Smiling Buddha”. India refers back to
the device as a “peaceful nuclear explosive”. 
1985- In December 1985, President Zia and top Minister Rajiv Gandhi
pledged now not to attack every different
nuclear centers. 
1986, the Indian and Pakistani
governments began high-degree talks to solve the
Siachen Glacier border dispute and to enhance change.

1988 –
The exchange in leadership introduced a
new technology of relation between the 2 opponents. In
Dec 1988 Benazir Bhutto Shaheed and Rajiv Gandhi resumed talks
on special troubles melding cultured exchange, civil
aviation and no longer to attack each different nuclear facilities.
At that time Benazir Bhutto said,
” Burry the hatchet”, we have had enough of it. Allow begin a
brand new chapter. India has a brand new era leadership.
Rajiv & I belong to a new generation. We’ve some kinship. He
father became assassinated and so turned into my father.
He lost his brother and so have I we both can start from clean state.”
The two nations sign an agreement that
neither side will assault the alternative’s nuclear
installations or centers. Each facets follow
to percentage facts on the latitudes and longitudes of all
nuclear installations. This settlement later ratified, and the
2 nations share information on January
1 each year since then.
1989 – Armed resistance to Indian
rule within the Kashmir valley starts. Muslim
political events, after accusing the country authorities of
rigging the 1987 country legislative elections, form militant
wings.

Pakistan says that it gives its “moral and
diplomatic” support to the movement, reiterating its call for the earlier
UN-sponsored referendum.

India says that Pakistan is supporting the insurgency by
providing weapons and training to fighters, terming attacks against it in
Kashmir “cross-border terrorism”. Pakistan denies this.

Militant groups taking part in the fight in Kashmir continue
to emerge through the 1990’s, in part fueled by a large influx of “mujahedeen”
who took part in the Afghan war against the Soviets in the 1980s.

INDIA-PAKISTAN cold struggle

Bilateral tensions multiplied in early
1990, whilst Kashmiri separatists from Pakistan occupied
Kashmir sponsored via the Pakistan’s ISI perpetrated violence in
Indian Kashmir. Next high-stage bilateral conferences relieved
the tensions among Pakistan and India.
1991 – A
proper “no assault” agreement became signed
in January 1991. 
The 2 international locations signal agreements
on presenting advance notification of navy exercises,
maneuvers and troop movements, as well as on stopping airspace
violations and organizing overflight policies.
1992 – A
joint declaration prohibiting using chemical guns is
signed in New Delhi.
1993- Members of the
family worsened again after terrorist bombings in Bombay, in
March 1993. Talks among the foreign Secretaries
of both international locations in January 1994 resulted
in deadlock.
1996 – Following a
sequence of clashes, military officers from each Nations meet at
the LoC in order to ease tensions.
1997- Excessive stage talks have
been resumed after three years. top Minister of India
and Pakistan met twice and overseas secretaries performed 3 rounds
of talks wherein they recognized eight first
rate issues to recognition. those eight troubles have
been:
• Kashmir problem
• Water crisis
• Sir creek difficulty
• Rann of Kutch
• MFN fame
• Siachen problem
• country sponsored trouble
• Nuclear Deterrence
1998 – In September 1997 the talks
broke down on structural difficulty where as in can
also 1998 the state of affairs have
become tougher because of nuclear experiment carried
out by way of Pakistan. India detonates 5 nuclear gadgets at
Pokhran. Pakistan responds by using detonating six
nuclear devices of its personal in the Chagai Hills.
The exams result in global sanctions
being placed on both international locations. in
the identical yr, both nations perform checks of long-variety missiles.
Development in family members
inside the overdue 1990s, the
Indo-Pakistani relationship swung sharply between reunion
and warfare. After taking office in February
1997, high Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to renew an professional dialogue with
India. Some of meetings on the foreign secretary
and high Ministerial degree befell,
with advantageous atmospherics but little
concrete progress.
1999 in February, Indian prime Minister
Atal Bihari Vajpayee meets with Nawaz Sharif, his Pakistani counterpart, in
Lahore. The two sign the Lahore assertion, the primary settlement between the
two countries since the 1972 Shimla Accord. 
Both nations reaffirm their commitment to the Shimla
Accord, and comply with undertake a number of ‘confidence constructing Measures’
(CBMs).
A number of the diplomatic profits are eroded. However, 
after the Kargil conflict breaks out in May. Kargil is the
primary armed conflict between the
2 associates seeing that they formally carried
out nuclear weapons tests.

2001 –
Tensions alongside the
line of manipulate stay high, with 38 human
beings killed in an attack at
the Kashmiri meeting in Srinagar. In July, Pakistani President
Pervez Musharraf and Indian prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee meet
for a two-day summit inside the Indian town of Agra.
That summit collapses after days, with each sides unable to reach
agreement on the middle difficulty of Kashmir.
On December thirteen, an armed attack at the Indian
parliament in New Delhi leaves 14 people useless. India blames
Lashkar-e-Tayba and Josh-e-Muhammad for the assaults.
2002 – President Musharraf pledges
that Pakistan will combat extremism on
its own soil, however affirms that the United States
of America has a proper to Kashmir.
2003 – After
Musharraf requires a ceasefire alongside the LoC in
the course of a UN fashionable meeting in September, the
two nations attain a settlement to cool tensions
and quit hostilities across border.

After this the
relations between two countries are better and pretty much controlled. We hope
the same in the future that both countries enjoy better and friendly relations.

 

 

Dedan Kimathi University of Technology Electrical and

Dedan
Kimathi University of Technology

Electrical
and Electronic Engineering Department

Bsc.
EEE

5th
YEAR PROJECT CONCEPT NOTE

Names.
                                                                                   Reg.
No. :

STEPHEN
WAMAE MATHENGE                                  E021-01-0115/2016

AMOS
KIPROP KOECH                                                               E021-01-0689/2014               

Title                INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT
SYSTEM

Problem
statement

In Kenyan roads accidents are at alarming rate since
death rate stands at 3000 per year which arises due to human error. Hence the
need to reduce them and provide reliable information on the road conditions,
vehicle parameters and other environmental factors that would play a major
factor in reducing accidents and save time, life and resources.

Mobility and
transportation are the engine to economic growth of a country. Unfortunately,
this engine also depicts the signs of the times (i.e. congestion, accessibility
and road safety problems). It has been proven that the supply of infrastructure
cannot keep up with population and mobility growth of a country, especially in
the developing world; this is due to financial and human resource constraints.

Increasing traffic congestion around the world is limiting
urban mobility and contributing to unsustainable environmental, economic, and
social conditions. The concept of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), which
is defined as the application of computing and electronics technologies to
transportation, offers potential for alleviating the negative effects of
traffic congestion. These negative effects include impacts on road efficiency, the
environment, safety, and cost. Institutional obstacles, however, limit ITS
deployment.

Justification

Intelligent Transport System (ITS)
encompasses a broad range of wireless and wire line communications based
information and electronics technologies and is one of the most promising
methods in dealing with the traffic problems. While some key information is
readily obtained using traditional query operations of traffic information, the
analysis and management of traffic information remains one of the key issues
and deeper information are still difficult to discover. This deeper level
information usually contains large volume of data known as big data and our
inability to harness important information from them brings us to an important
technique used universally. The intelligent transport system
(ITS) takes the first step towards meeting this challenge by providing
effective, reliable and meaningful knowledge to the motorists in time. Traffic congestions,
endangered environments and safety can be solved through effective innovative
and sophisticated ways and techniques that use emerging information technology,
electronics and telecommunication with roads and traffic management techniques.
When this technique is employed in the transport infrastructure system and in
the vehicles, it would help in monitoring and managing traffic flow, provide
alternative routes to drivers hence reduce congestions on the road and
increasing productivity by saving time and money and also safe life as well.
Intelligent transport system provides skilled tools for transport professionals
where they can collect, analyze and archive the data and through the data
response time to incidences, adverse weather conditions can be handled with
ease. 

Main
Objectives:

reducing environmental
impact and increasing safety

Specific
objectives:

Minimize congestion and improve flow of traffic Enhanced mobility for commuters

References
:

x

x

1

yokosuka Toshifumi
Nishimura and Takasho kunihiko Sugihara, “Vibration sensor for an
automotive vehicle,” 4348905, July 8, 1980.

2

Lowa State
University, “New road surfacecondition sensors,” lowa state
uviversity, US, Report 2005. Online.  
HYPERLINK “http://aurora-program.org”   http://aurora-program.org

3

Sumit Mallik,
“Intelligent Transport System,” International Journal of Civil
Engineering Reaserch, vol. V, no. 4, pp. 367-372, 2014.

4

Paula Silvonen, Mauno
Ronkko, Mikko Kolehmainen Markus Stocker, “Detection and Classification
of Vehicles by Measurement of Road -Pavement vibration and by Means of
Supervised Machine learning,” Journal of Intelligent Transport System,
vol. XXII, no. 2, pp. 125-137, February 2015.

5

IIT-KANPUR.
Webcourse-contents. Online.  
HYPERLINK “http://nptel.ac.in”   http://nptel.ac.in

6

M. Amer Shedid, Samah
A.S. Hossam M.S., “Real Time Traffic Accident Detection System using
Wireless Network,” in International Conference of soft computing
& pattern Recognition, Cairo Egypt, 2014.

7

Benedikt Schmuelling
Heiko Fechtner, “A New Selection Procedure for the Optimal Vehicle Mass
Detection Method Depending on Environmental Parameters,” in 2nd IEEE
International Conference On Intellingent Transport Engineering, Wuppertal
Germany, 2017.

8

R. Sunitha, R. Anitha
C. Prabha, “Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection and Messaging System
Using GSM and GPS Modem,” International Journal of Advanced Research
in Electrical Electronics & International Engineering, vol. III, no.
7, pp. 10723-10727, July 2014.

1) Strengthen the protection system

a. Establish situ conservation areas such as forest parks, agricultural wild plant protection spots, wetland parks, geoparks, and marine protection zones. By the end of 2013, 2697 nature reserves had been established nationwide with an area of about 1,463,000 square kilometers. The nature reserves cover about 14.8% of China’s land area.

b. Strengthen the rescue of endangered species. to rescue and conserve endangered wild animals and plants, with the development of endangered species breeding techniques, habitat restoration, and other measures make some critically endangered wild species gradually get rid of the red list.

 

2) carry out habitat protection and restoration

Continue to carry out the natural forest resources protection, returning farmland to forest, repairing overgrazed grasslands, Beijing and Tianjin sand source management, wetland protection and restoration, and other key ecological projects. Since 2001, the ecological conditions in the key construction areas have been significantly improved. The national forest resources have continued to grow. The forest area has increased by 23.0% over 10 years. The forest coverage rate has risen by 3.8%. A number of important international and national Wetlands have been rescued and about half of the natural wetlands have been effectively protected. The implementation of key ecological projects has promoted the restoration of habitats of degraded ecosystems and wild species and effectively protected biological diversity.

 

3)Develop and implement incentives that are conducive to biodiversity conservation

In order to avoid negative impacts on biodiversity and the environment, the Chinese government canceled export tax rebates for 553 high-energy-consuming, high-pollution, and resource-based products in 2007, including endangered animals, plants and their products, leather, some wood and disposable Wood products and so on.

Imagine will explore what happens when society

Imagine yourself being born in utilitarian like society
like in the anime psycho pass or in the book The giver, which both have
qualities of a utopian society, would you follow the main character and fight
your way out of society or choose to continue staying?

Why do we have to endure the pain of losing of love ones?
Wouldn’t life be better if we eliminate all these negative emotions in our
lives? A world with no pain or suffering sounds nice to live in, right? If your
answer is yes, then utopia will seem like a lucrative place for you to live in.
“Utopia” is the word used
to denote the best life attainable. Since each person has their own unique
vision of Utopia, Utopia is therefore, “the ability for each person to
live in their own vision of paradise.”

Jeremy
Bentham developed his ethical system around the idea of pleasure. He built it
on ancient hedonism which pursued physical pleasure and avoided physical pain.
According to Bentham, the most moral acts are those which maximize pleasure and
minimize pain. An act would be moral if it brings the greatest amount of
pleasure and the least amount of pain. John Stuart Mill modified this
philosophy and developed it apart from Bentham’s hedonistic foundation. Mill
used the same utilitarian calculus but instead focused on maximizing the
general happiness by calculating the greatest good for the greatest number.
While Bentham used the calculus in a quantitative sense, Mill used this
calculus in a qualitative sense. He believed, for example, that some pleasures
were of higher quality than others. Utilitarianism has been embraced by so many
simply because it seems to make a good deal of sense and seems relatively
simple to apply. However, when it was first proposed, utilitarianism was a
radical philosophy. It attempted to set forth a moral system apart from divine
revelation and biblical morality. Utilitarianism focused on results rather than
rules. Ultimately the focus on the results demolished the rules. In this essay,
I will explore what happens when society takes up the utilitarian role. Does it
make society better, or does it make it worse?

 

Utilitarianism
promotes a happier world because everyone wants happiness and utilitarianism
simply helps us to achieve it. This method of decision making is beneficial as
it guides people to truly think about the effects of their actions. This makes
life easier when making tough choices. During difficult time, our emotions and
desires will take over these decisions most of the time. However, with this
theory of ethics, you are able to think very rationally and make the perceived,
right choice. Making utilitarian choices results in the number of negative
aspects such as pain and suffering to be minimized which would maximize
happiness. Utilitarianism provided for a way for
people to live moral lives apart from the Bible and its prescriptions. There
was no need for an appeal to divine revelation. Reason rather than revelation
was sufficient to determine morality. In the beginning of that work Bentham
wrote: “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign
masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them
alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall
do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of
causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do,
in all we say, in all we think: every effort we can make to throw off our
subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it.” Bentham believed
that pain and pleasure not only explain our actions but also help us define
what is good and moral. He believed that this foundation could provide a basis
for social, legal, and moral reform in society. To determine whether an action
is moral you merely have to calculate the good and bad consequences that will
result from a particular action. If the good outweighs the bad, then the action
is moral. So what would happen if society adopts the utilitarian approach? Further
on, I will explore the societies from The Giver and Psycho Pass and make a
decision whether I will stay or leave their society if I am born there.

 

What if we can eradicate all negative connotations and achieved our final goal of peace. But is peace really our ultimate goal
in life? Does peace allow us as humans to live a contemplative life, or live a
life in accordance with reason? In The Giver by
Lois Lowry, a world consisting of no memory, colour, music, love, suffering,
hunger, or war, the society is completely peaceful by blocking all pain and
suffering from the citizens. Unfortunately, what seems to be a utopia would
actually turn out to be the complete opposite, a dystopian society. In this
society, the elders, the group that runs the society, chose the job for all
eleven year olds, which determines their job for the rest of their lives.
Jonas, the only one was picked to be the Receiver of Memory. The reason why
there is no conflicts in this society because the community focused on ‘sameness’,
which results in little privacy, inability to choose a job, spouse and so on.
However, only Jonas is showed what the world used to be, full of emotions,
suffering and pain. Jonas is delighted to see what love feels like, the
beautiful spectrum of a rainbow, but is distraught when he visions war and
suffering. In this society where there is no freedom of speech because it will
get you released (put to sleep forever), lack of individualism and the
excessive amount of sameness in the community leads to communism, or worse, a
dystopian society that brainwashes all.

Aristotle states in the beginning of
Book I of Nicomachean Ethics that “man
seeks good as end or means and the end is the good. Therefore,
according to Aristotle, reaching the end means that man has achieved his
specific goal. To achieve this goal, man must live out the contemplative life,
which is living a life in accordance with reason. The goal, thus, would be one
in which is determined by the humanness of man since it must be in accordance
with reason, which requires all of human potential. Even though the people do
their jobs that are given to them, they are unable to reach their end goal
because they have been robbed from their humanity. They have lost all touch
with the real world, the emotions and characteristics vital for humanity
because experiencing pain and suffering is what makes a man human. It supposed
to be a two-way system, man build the state and the state helps man to achieve
the end. The absence of pain and everyone being the same just makes the people
like a clockwork.

 

John Stuart Mill, author of
Utilitarianism, had a different viewpoint on what it means to be happy. His
version matches up slightly better with the society’s view on happiness
presented in The Giver. Mill claims that “pleasure, and freedom from pain, are
the only things desirable as ends.” Mill version of happiness is something
pleasurable as a feeling, not an end goal like Aristotle. Mill views that man
achieved something pleasurable that doesn’t involve pain, then they have
reached true happiness. There is no such thing as pain in The Giver, so
pleasure is always desirable. The people are brainwashed to think that
everything is good and happy, they don’t know the difference between pleasure
and pain because they do not know any better in terms of pain and pleasure. The
Giver and Mill have the utilitarian viewpoint which agree that in the majority
versus minority rule in which anything can be considered good as long as the
majority agrees that the act is good. A bad action can be considered good as
long as the majority believes so. As seen in The Giver, babies that are
exceptional small and abnormal are killed because they violate the sameness
rule. Since the people do not know suffering or pain, the act is considered
good because that is what the majority thinks. This is an example on how a bad
action turns into a good action because of the majority rule. Mill’s argument
of utilitarianism close relates to The society’s view of happiness because pleasure
is free form pain and the majority gets to decide if an act is good or bad. Pleasure is always good
in the absence of pain. But when pain is non-existent, can I really say that I
have achieved true happiness? The way the society pushes the Utilitarian way of
being happy along with the little individualism and corruption makes it an
undesirable place to live in. So going back to Jonas, he goes on a
battle to escape the communities and reach Elsewhere, which is considered the
society we live in today consisting of pain and suffering, emotions, and music,
which is the real utopia. Would I follow him and leave this pain free dystopia?
Definitely yes, I will leave because the I do not agree with the view of
seeking perfection in the society. If choosing to discard emotions brings me
happiness, then it would be the same as claiming that happiness is when you
become an emotionless robot. Then in my opinion, it will defeat the purpose of
pursing a fulfilled colourful life. This might even lead me into
thinking that maybe war and sufferings are necessary evil in this world or else
our government today will turn into a catastrophic dystopia in the future like
the one portrayed in The Giver.

First let us explore the psycho pass society. This time, it
differs from The Giver’s society because now the world is filled with colours,
emotions, wars and suffering. Under this Sibyl System where people are judged
by an AI system, known as the Sibyl System. Each and Everyone has a crime
coefficient determined by the Sibyl System. Once the crime coefficient is high,
their probability of committing a crime is high, which mean they will have to
go for treatment which is like a prison. Note that this crime coefficient takes
years to go down, but it may rise up in an instant. So once the crime efficient
is very high, the person is identified as a latent criminal by the Sibyl system
and will be eliminated for good by the enforcer. Just like The Giver’s society,
this society lacks free will, not in terms of choice but the entire justice
system is based on probability of individual committing a crime, which raises
many debates. Can those who never committed a crime be considered criminals?
What if they manage their psychological stress and refrain from committing
crimes? How can ever know if they die before having a chance to prove
themselves?

Sybil is a binary justice system: you are either
100% innocent or 100% guilty, there are no grey areas, presenting itself as a
double edged sword. It is a place where crimes are basically unheard of, people
do not need to worry for their safety and the vast majority can lead a peaceful
life without worrying. While there are restrictions on free speech, there are
still message boards and politics so long as the thoughts are not violent. One
of the greatest aspect is that Sybil is an unbiased objective system where no
rich or people with influence can escape their crimes because of their status.
Additionally, police brutality and gang violence cannot happen in this world.
The cons are similar to The Giver’s society, limitation on speech, a single
event can end your life for good without you doing anything harmful. There is a
problem with reverting back to the old status quo which take years, and people
can get tired and bored living while constantly having their emotions in check.
But at the end of the day, when we compare Sybil with today’s justice system,
both are equally bad and flawed, and there is no right way to settle this debate.
There are people who are treated badly by the Sibyl system, but the same goes
for our justice system. People born in a poor environment with frequent war and
violence and little education are more likely to become criminals and politicians
get off scot-free even if they commit crime. So the question is where is the
balance between a completely impartial system that minimizes corruption and has
minimal flaws.  Under this system, no
one can change emotionally, and on top of that the society has utopia qualities
not because everyone is happy but because society functions smoothly under the reliance
of the AI system which eradicates criminals before they commit crimes. Unlike
The Giver, who its people don’t know that their emotions are taken away, the
universe in Psycho-Pass is an epitome of how this seemly utopian society is
actually a dystopia, a utopian dystopia. Let’s say we follow the main character’s footstep
and leave this society. Then we would realize that unlike The Giver, the other
society are actually in ruins, filled with true dystopia where wars, violence,
pain and suffering fill the air. Would we still choose to leave the utilitarian
society?

 

 

 

Sibyl
System represents a branch of ethical theory known as consequentialism, in
which the only factor taken into account when determining the ethics of a
situation is the end result. In other words, the correct decision is the one
with the most favourable results. Some opposes this, instead choosing to
believe that a decision only has importance because of the motivation and will
of the person deciding, an opinion that is much more representative of
virtue-based ethics which is one should act according to what they think is
right, regardless of the consequences. It is obvious
for us that the Sibyl System is inherently immoral and unethical, as a
utilitarian society, wouldn’t it achieve its goal because the vast majority of
the people under the system are able to live happy and productive life. No
system is perfect, even the Sibyl System, but that doesn’t mean that the Sibyl
System isn’t the best option available. Ultimately, the question that the
society of Psycho-Pass raises is whether the ends
justify the means. Is it preferable to have a society that is prosperous and
has low crime but based on a morally and ethically ambiguous system, or to have
a system that is morally and ethically sound but is rife with crime and
unhappiness?

 

One of the criticism of utilitarian
states that “they reduce the subtleties of human life to a
stark calculation of animal-like pleasures, with no concern for how these
pleasures are produced.” This gave utilitarianism a negative connotation
and it was often mocked as a “doctrine only worthy of swine”. (philosophy
of the classics, mill utilitarianism). John Stuart Mill defends utilitarianism
from such criticism with his version which differs from Jeremy Bentham’s
“simple” version: Mill’s differentiation between higher and lower
pleasures puts forward that intellectual pleasures are intrinsically more
valuable that physical pleasures. Bentham however treats all pleasures as equal
to each other. So, when utilitarianism is described as a doctrine worthy only
of swine, Mill argues that it is better to be a dissatisfied human being than a
satisfied pig; and better to be a dissatisfied Socrates than a satisfied fool.
His defence is that human beings are capable of intellectual pleasures as well
as physical ones, whereas pigs cannot enjoy intellectual pleasures. In his
view, humans who have experienced intellectual pleasures will prefer them to
lower, physical ones. that Mill’s suggests is a better way to reach a greater
degree of happiness in life, and is more valuable toward health and mental
satisfaction. Not only does Mill distinguish between mental and physical
pleasures, he also distinguishes between quality of pleasures and quantity of
pleasures.

To conclude my view on utilitarianism, although
often considered a simple theory which declares that the morally right action
in any circumstances is the one which is most likely to maximize happiness, is
actually a very complex cluster of related theories developed rapidly since the
18th century. As a moral basis for some decision making I think
utilitarianism could have some use in society today, however, as moral theory I
do not think that it upholds and the problems within it are insurmountable. Overall, the weakness outweighs the strengths
because Utilitarianism doesn’t take into account the feelings or happiness of
the minority and also how can we measure pleasure, you can’t add a value
towards it.

The pros and cons of the society has to be weigh in order
to determine whether one should stay or leave.  If it is in the context of The Giver, and my
parents are not my parents. The obvious choice is to leave the society for
good, and seek for a world with colours and emotions. But when presented with
the society in Psycho Pass, a utopian dystopia, and other dystopian society
filled with war and violence, the answer is not as obvious as it seems. Since I
disagree with the ethics in the Sibyl System, I would definitely leave but if I
go to other war zones, my chance of suffering and getting killed increases ten
times. So the question would be whether I want to live a life of unhappiness or
risk living in misery. It is just choosing the less miserable of the two,
similar to idea of whether would we want to live in a warzone or live in the
slumps of a rich country. After many consideration, though I must say maybe
living a unsatisfied but safe life might be better after all.

 

 

 

#!/usr/bin/env Y if turn == R else

#!/usr/bin/env python2

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

“””

Created on Wed Nov 8 15:05:00 2017

“””

def D_Neg (table, columns, rows):

“””Showing negative diagonals, going from top-left to bottom-right.”””

for di in ((j, i – columns + j + 1) for j in range(columns) for i in range(columns + rows – 1)):

yield tableij for i, j in di if i >= 0 and j >= 0 and i < columns and j < rows def D_Pos (table, columns, rows): """Showing positive diagonals, going from bottom-left to top-right.""" for di in ((j, i - j) for j in range(columns) for i in range(columns + rows -1)): yield tableij for i, j in di if i >= 0 and j >= 0 and i < columns and j < rows """Specifications.""" R = 'R'; Y = 'Y'; P = '=' class Connect4: def __init__ (C4, columns = 7, rows = 6, win = 4): """Create a new Connect4.""" C4.columns = columns C4.rows = rows C4.win = win C4.game = P * rows for _ in range(columns) def insert (C4, column, color): """Getting the color in the given column.""" c = C4.gamecolumn if c1 != P: raise Exception('Column is full') i = -1 while ci != P: i -= 1 ci = color C4.Win() def Win (C4): """Checking for game winner.""" w = C4.winner() if w: C4.showGame() raise Exception(w + ' won!') def winner (C4): """Getting the game winner.""" lns = ( C4.game, # columns zip(*C4.game), # rows D_Pos(C4.game, C4.columns, C4.rows), # positive diagonals D_Neg(C4.game, C4.columns, C4.rows) # negative diagonals ) for ln in chain(*lns): for color, group in groupby(ln): if color != P and len(list(group)) >= C4.win:

return color

def showGame (C4):

“””Printing the game.”””

print(‘ ‘.join(map(str, range(C4.columns))))

for y_axis in range(C4.rows):

print(‘ ‘.join(str(C4.gamex_axisy_axis) for x_axis in range(C4.columns)))

print()

from itertools import groupby, chain

if __name__ == ‘__main__’:

g = Connect4()

turn = R

while True:

g.showGame()

row = input(‘{}’s turn: ‘.format(‘R’ if turn == R else ‘Y’))

g.insert(int(row), turn)

turn = Y if turn == R else R

Although partook in the college experience had

Although
the interest of attending college has increased substantially over the years
among high school students, this is not the case for all students.
First-generation students continue to lag behind and it is something that should
not be left in the abyss. There are a number of factors that play a role in the
academic decisions to be taken by first-generation students, some of which many
non-first –generation students do not have to face. For instance,
socio-economic backgrounds, the social support and involvement they receive
from their families and peers, and their parents’ education level, are all
factors that may contribute to shifting a first-generation student’s attitudes
towards pursuing an undergraduate degree. 
Due to the added hardships that first-generation students face, it is
not unanticipated that they will, in average, have lower college academic
performance, and will have a more difficult time adjusting and committing to
college when compared to their non-first-generation counterparts. It is
important to assess the weight particular factors have in the academic outcomes
and attitudes of first-generation students in order to bridge a gap in the
disparities between first-generation students and their peers.

Review of Literature

            While there are many definitions for
what being a first-generation student entails, for this study, first-generation
students are defined as those who are the first among their immediate family to
attend a 4-year college or university. Unfortunately, first-generation students
are highly underrepresented among college going students. For instance, a 2001
NCES study found that although 82 percent of high school non-first-generation
students enrolled in college immediately after graduating high school, only 54
percent of those whose parents graduated high school enrolled in college after
finishing high school, and only 36 percent of those whose parents’ completed
less than a high school degree, enrolled in college (Choy, 2001). It is clear
that parents’ education level has a direct effect on the motivation a high
school student may have towards attending college as those with parents who
partook in the college experience had higher college enrollment rates than the
students whose parents did not attend college. Approximately 25 % of students
drop out of college by the end of their first year, but it is much more
astounding that 50 % of first-generation students will drop out of college by
the end of their first year, which is a great discrepancy that should
definitely not be left ignored (Ishitani, 2006).

            There are a number of components
that can be thought to influence the given statistics, such as: socioeconomic
background, course-taking patterns, high school characteristics, parents’
education level, and the support they receive from their peers and environment
to continue through the path of higher education. From an early age, most
first-generation students lack the motivation to attend college, according to
Choy and colleagues, first-generation students are reported to have lower
educational expectations than their peers as early as 8th grade and
are overall less prepared to go through the whole college process. Such
expectations may be due to the lack of exposure a first-generation students have
to educated professionals at home. For instance, those who are the first to
attend college in their family are overall less knowledgeable about college
tuition costs, taking out loans, the application process (York-Anderson et al.,
1992), and tend to have a less demanding academic preparation in high school
(Warburton, Bugarin, & Nunez, 2001). While academic performance seems to be
one of the greatest elements in predicting the success of first-generation
student in attending college, psychosocial elements are also important
determinants on college enrollment (Barry et al., 2009). The fact that the
parents of first-generation students lack knowledge encompassing the college
experience may pose a great obstacle for these students since their parents
cannot help them directly with college tasks (Dennis et al., 2003).

            All in all, the literature on
first-generation college students illustrates them as being at a disadvantage
as they are seen to lack both personal skills and social supports that can
contribute to a successful academic performance. According to Dennis and
colleagues, the academic success of college students is primarily a result of
personal characteristics, such as mental ability, academic skills, motivation,
and goals, but most importantly the characteristics of the environment they
grew up in, such as face-to-face interaction with, support from family and
peers, and cultural values. Nevertheless, it is clear that the social support
students perceive from family, peers, and their environment is most predictive
of their attitudes towards college and their overall experience. This study
aims to investigate the discrepancies in social support (motivational and
environmental) perceived by first-generation college students and their
non-first-generation counterparts and how their attitudes towards college and
their overall experience is affected as a result. This will be done by
analyzing grade point averages, adjustment to college, and commitment to
college as predictors. Career/personal expectations, along with two types of
social support (perceived family and peer support) and the lack of needed
support from family and peers will be assessed in this study in order to assess
their effects.

Hypothesis

            Ho: Perceived social support will
have the same influence on the academic performance of first-generation
students and non-first-generation students.

            Ha: Perceived social support will
have a greater influence on the academic performance of first-generation
students. 

            We hypothesized that motivation
along with family/peer social support, will be most predictive of college
academic performance, adjustment to college, and commitment to college for
first-generation students. First-generation students are more prone to report
negative college experiences, dropping out of college, and most importantly,
lack needed support from family and peers who have already gone through
college. 

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