On less violently, meaning that there can

On the 10th
July 1908, the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes succeeded in liquifying
helium to produce a temperature of 4.2K; a discovery which sowed the seeds for
one of the most remarkable results in modern physics to date 1. Now that liquid
helium could be made, Onnes decided to use his new-found technique to answer a
question that had baffled physicists at the time – what happens to the
resistance of a metal if cooled to absolute-zero?

It was a well-established
fact that as a material is cooled down that its resistance falls; simply on the
basis that the atoms inside vibrate less violently, meaning that there can be less
scattering and subsequently less resistance. Following previous research by Dewar,
Lord Kelvin and Matthiessen, Onnes wanted to investigate the low conductivity
of a range of different metals, seeing just how small the resistance of a material
can become if purified (to reduce further resistance via scattering) and if the
temperature is reduced to the greatest extent possible. In order to achieve
this purity, Onnes decided to work with the liquid metal mercury encased in glass
capillaries, which could be repeatedly distilled to remove any possible impurities
2. These would be frozen using the liquified helium. Onnes’s results showed
that as the samples of mercury were cooled below its boiling point that its
resistance unexpectedly plummeted to zero, a result that bewildered. To try to
explain this abrupt change in R, Onnes repeated the experiment multiple times
to no avail, until an important anomalous result was found. It dawned upon him,
that during a repeat experiment, the temperature of the He was being controlled
by a junior assistant in the laboratory (a ‘blue boy’ – referring to the uniforms
worn at the time). It came to light that this assistant had, in a moment of
aloofness, allowed the helium to boil, raising the temperature of the mercury
until the resistance reappeared, much to their astonishment. It was here that
Onnes was able to see that this was no systematic artefact, but he had inadvertently
discovered mercury’s critical temperature
and the existence of Superconductivity

Procedures provide a rundown of the procedures

Procedures That Will Lead You to the Best Cruise Deals in SouthamptonOver the years most people have held the opinion that cruise holidays are meant for the most fortunate in the society. It is the high time that it comes to your attention that you can still have this kind of luxury vacation even when you do not have a lot of money. You should know that there is are deals that are designed for the amount of money that you have if only you are ready to dedicate your time to get them. The text will provide a rundown of the procedures that will lead you to the best cruise deals in Southampton.You should ensure that you make a resolution on the kind of cruise that you desire and ensure that you are flexible. You should make sure that you know the destination, type of cruise, size of the ship, cost, and the dates of the vacation when you are going to shop for the best deals. It is when you have these essential things ion your mind that you can be in a position to narrow your search to the right cruise. It is an excellent idea that you strategize about the vacation earlier which means that you can consider the booking between January and March. It is at this times that you can be sure that you will get a deal that will not become a financial burden to you because many people will not be booking the cruises. You can also decide to wait until the last minute so that you can book the cruise when you are looking for the best deals. It is not possible to ignore the internet as the source of the best deals in this era which is dominated by the web. You should make sure that you look for those sites that have such details where you will be presented with numerous deals. It will be your duty to determine the one that is better priced and is also okay for your needs.It is essential that you visit the internet site of the said cruise so that you can know the ship each line provides, the destination, and their cheapest deals. You can get some information that about the cruises which offer their customers a discount on the services. You can decide to utilize such cruises since they will save you a substantial amount of cash. 

Companionship point in this companionship companies. Then

means minor individual followers arrangement business.one or two persons are
joining in this companionship organizations. It can be share the income and
responsibilities this company. Mainly there are signing the contract and carry
on the business. In this companionship companies changed from another companies.
All these things doing the contract. Companionship companies are giving to
profit another partner. In this companionship companies have a decent or bad
store. Companionship companies are three types. There are, General Partnership,
Limited Partnership, Limited liabilities partnership.

are lot of strong points and weak point in this companionship companies. Then
strong points are all companies earn lot of capital. Main part of these
companionship companies. Then investment the and improve development to the
companionship organization. But sometimes companionship organizations are
planning to development their companies for every year. Another strong point is
associates are saving their revenue. In the last strong point is decision making.
All companies are development to the director boards and employees. But
director boards are thinking and get to positive result. These are the strong
points of partnerships company. Companionship companies have to weak points.
But some organizations are trying to remove the weak areas. There weak point is
profit sharing. But some companies earn to capital and they are not like to
share the capital. If this matter to face in another partner. Sometimes he or
she leave that the partnership. These are the weak point of partnership.

this question another part is Limited Company. Limited company means persons
are backlog an organization also they are retained a team of people it called
as the stakeholders. They have infinite own responsibilities and debenture of
society. Limited Organization are allowed.in in these organization take along
cash and they are mark an agreement now to private name. Limited companies are
two types. There are Private Limited Company and Public Limited Company.

Organization have a lot of strong points and weak point. Limited Organization
have to strong strong points there are in height safeties in that occupational.
Additional strength part is they are not using a company car. There is a strong
point of limited organization.an additional weak areas are price compound
financial records and limited money rising. 

Reporter: and many more. We also took

Reporter: Hello and welcome back the MA History News Channel. Today, we are going to be discussing the Ottoman Empire’s Governing System. I have Cadby here with us to help us understand the Governing of the Ottoman Empire better.Cadby: ***Walk on*** What? Why am I here? (the reporter whispers to him) ***Look at the camera*** Oh!Reporter: Can you please first explain how the Ottoman Empire was made.Cadby: Sure, Osman the First created the Ottoman Empire. His military quickly conquered over many areas, including Syria, Palestine, and many more. We also took over the Byzantine Empire after they collapsed.Reporter: Cool, how did Osman the First rule? Cadby: Well, he was quite kind. We first were Bureaucratic and had minimal to no taxes at all.Reporter: What happened after that??Cadby: Well, the governing power was switching back and forth for a while. But, then the ruling system was Feudalistic.Reporter: what is feudalistic again?Cadby: I thought that you were supposed to know that. Why are you even here?Reporter: ***raise voice a little*** ***(Whisper loudly) ***I already know what it means!!! I am supposed to have this channel to inform people!!Cadby: well, fine. Feudalistic means that there is Nobility and Poverty and the Poverty works for the nobility. (Show picture of feudalism on screen)Reporter: Okay, well then, who were the “Power Figures” in the Ottoman Empire?Cadby: The Grand Vizier and Sheikh-ul-Islam.Reporter: What is a Sheikh… ulaCadby: Sheikh-ul-Islam??Reporter: Yea, who is that?Cadby: Firstly the Sheikh-ul-Islam is quite high ranking role and secondly this is Religious Title given to outstanding scholars.Reporter: OH!!! But, What is the Grand Vizier?Cadby: Okay, the Grand Vizier is the Prime Minister of the Ottoman Empire. The Grand Vizier is high ranking and has great power.Reporter: Alright, that makes sense! What are the ‘special laws’ in the Ottoman Empire??Cadby: Well, I believe that the Law of Fratricide is quite important.Reporter: So, Firstly, what language was this law written in and secondly what is the law itself.Cadby: The language was most likely in Arabic or Turkish, as that was what had been spoken back then. Secondly, the law states that when a king dies, whichever son takes rule. Must, kill all of his brothers.Reporter: What??? Why???Cadby: Well, this law was put into play, when Mehmet the First had to fight all of his brothers in a bloodthirsty war, to become the king. This war nearly destroyed parts of the Ottoman Empire. So, Mehmet the Second decided to put the Law of Fratricide into place.Reporter: Did this law last long??Cadby: Well, no eventually, Ahmed the First put this law out of play in the Ottoman Empire to prevent more wars.Reporter: Smart Man!!Cadby: Yes!Reporter: Are there anymore ‘bloodthirsty’ laws?Cadby: Nope, but there is the law of Kanun.Reporter: So, what is the law of Kanun?Cadby: Well, it is a secular legal system.Reporter: So, what does that mean?Cadby: It means, that in the ottoman empire, they were free to do their own religion and teachings.Reporter: Interesting. So, that made the Ottoman empire have many cultures and religions.Cadby: Yes.Reporter: Anything else that I should know.Cadby: That it smells like roses in here?Reporter: That is called an air freshener.***Whisper***Cadby: OKReporter: Anything related to the Ottoman Empire.Cadby: No that is all to the Governing. Now, I have to go get back to my time machine.Reporter: wha???Cadby: What, you think I aged this well. I used time travel, now bye.Reporter: ***Look Stunned*** OK????Reporter: Thank You for watching the MA Mustangs News. Have a nice day. ***Say quietly*** I need to lie down…

From the issues of asylum seeking among

From the table 4.5 above, the following describe the
women characteristics that benefits from incentives given to asylum seeker, it
shows that 60% of the women have German residence permit and the other 40% are
about to obtain it. Those with German permit are now eligible to work; they
have left asylum benefit class and are now in the job centers.



research is a sensitive one because of the confidentiality towards its
respondents. As researchers on the issues of asylum seeking among woman in
Passau, this research was done by making a research plan, after concluding the
plan; it was discovered that the target group was too big and a decision to
narrow it down to a specific group with common identity was made. So, Nigerian
women was selected as the target group.

next step was how to locate these group, various options were available like; doing
a street storm at the central bus station in Passau or on the street and
conduct interviews with African women, the response rate was zero. Another
option was to locate a place where they usually assemble and make free
discussion with them; Afro shop seems to be a right place.

On getting to the shop, the shop owner was
hospitable and the purpose of the research was discussed. She was so helpful in
explaining to her female customers why they should participate and comply as
well; she created a friendly environment for discussion and questions. During
the interview, the women were so open and easily assessable, the women
explained lot of issues and experiences which prompted another challenge.

The challenge was after designing the questionnaire with
its aim and hypothesis, it was discovered that there were more questions to the
research topic that was not considered during planning. Therefore, some
necessary adjustments and inclusion were made after listening to the recorded
interviews which aided the research design. The research questionnaire assumed
the women migrated from Africa, but the interview identifies that most of the
women have lived outside their countries (in other EU countries) of origin
before coming to Germany. Three of the women have lived in other European
countries for a minimum of 7 years before migrating to Germany. Therefore,
these women are classified as economic migrants because they do not match the
definitions of a refugees or asylum seekers. This is because their main aim is
to search for a better standard of living. Questions were asked; one of which
is “why they were accepted in Germany as asylum seekers” their answers were
based on the reasons they documented on arrival in Germany. They declared their
status as a refugee and gave a horrible story behind their migration from
Africa and some of them even claimed it was their first time in Europe because
they identified themselves without an identity or nationality making their
situations a humanitarian case.

interesting experience from the women was a case of divorcing her husband with
her two children in Spain, where they resided for 6 years and migrated to
Germany and declared herself as asylum seeker. She further explained her sufferings,
from how she left Nigeria to Spain for better life but on arrival in Spain, she
was given a regimented life; that is, she had applied as an asylum seeker in
Spain. She could not work neither desire anything good for herself, her best
option in Spain was the child support stipend. When she discovered she was four
weeks pregnant for her third baby, she left Spain for Germany and declared her
status as asylum seeker again. Three years later she has her German residence
permit and her two other children have relocated to Germany from Spain. She has
currently left all social benefit schemes and moved on to the job centers.     

the same desire of all the women that were interviewed was to be self-dependent
financially, there is a strong desire for independency; which could only result
from obtaining a German permit (residency) in other to have a better life for
themselves and their children. This was a strong reflection point, because
their desires for children in Germany was not born out of the asylum program
and fertility benefits rather it was a means of become financially independent.


With are some rules of the Forex

With the advancement of internet, Forex trading is getting much popular. Forex trading includes lots of calculations and analysis. Every trader must know that best things of market that can put a trader on track of success. A better understanding of Forex trading helps traders to make good win for long time. Forex trading is a great way to make fantastic passive income. There are some beautiful rules of the Forex trading market.There are some rules of the Forex trading market that needed to follow. Traders should learn one Forex trading methods and follow the rules of that method. There are many traders who do not stick to one specific Forex trading methods. They change their method on every trade. They think that this is a good way to change trading method every time. It is not right approach as sticking to one trading method is better to win.Traders smut look for an efficient Forex broker. A good broker will offer a good atmosphere to win trades at Forex trading marekt. In Forex trading marekt, a broker act like middleman between trader and market.  Traders must know how to find a good broker to win. This is one of the good thing that is good for traders at Forex trading market. Traders should research for good broker to survive in the Forex trading market.Traders must stop putting money in a losing trade to secure money. This is very important for traders to stop putting money if a trade is going to lose. Once a trade starts losing, traders must exit it as soon as possible. If they will never do it, they will lose everything at Forex trading market. Majority of traders do not stop a losing trade on the time. This is their biggest mistake at Forex trading market. If they do not stop losses, they will end up with an empty account.In Forex trading marekt, traders should never go for getting high profits. They should work step by step in the market. In the beginning, they should start with a small investment to get better idea. This will help them to know all the pitfalls of marekt. They will be confident with small investment as they know that they have lower risks of losing. So, mini Forex trading is good for new traders.A dummy Forex trading account is a best thing to do before jumping in real Forex trading. This will help traders to know all the good things of Forex trading marekt. They can better test their selected tools, strategies, methods and plan. They will come to know about their functionality by using dummy Forex trading account.A right attitude is essential for a trader to win at Forex trading market. If they will never use a good mind set and attitude, they will unable to survive at this market. All the good and professional traders have right attitude towards Forex trading market. Traders must remember discussed rules to trade with Forex trading market.

C204 manufacturing system toaccommodate growth, as well

C204 Task 2 – MerrillTASK A: Selected scenario is “Scenario #1″Scenario #1:You are a manager of a company that has recently purchased a smaller company. The purchasedcompany has an existing product, which will now be part of your product offering. The product is aweight-loss supplement called Weight Loss Optimizer. The product has been very successful for theprevious owner, but the company had limited ability to adjust its manufacturing system toaccommodate growth, as well as a limited potential sales audience. Your role is to oversee andcoordinate all aspects of launching the product from the newly acquired company. You have a fargreater manufacturing capacity and more potential customers readily available because you already sellseveral weight-loss related products to a large base of customers.Weight Loss Optimizer has been proven successful by a research study. The study consisted of 100participants, 90% of whom lost at least 15 pounds over a reasonable time period. To date, the studyparticipants have successfully maintained their weight loss by continuing to use the product. Of theusers, 80% were able to maintain their weight loss with continued use of Weight Loss Optimizer. The10% of study participants who were not successful may have been unsuccessful because they did notfollow the program’s protocol as set forth. An inherent risk in a weight loss product is the inability todetermine if the product has failed to produce results or if the user has not followed directions.Dissatisfied customers present a challenge as a result.Your success relies upon your external business partner, Pills Inc., who manufactures the pill casing forthe Weight Loss Optimizer. You will need to work closely with this partner to ensure your manufacturingoperation is able to increase as needed in a just-in- time environment to meet sales demands. Yourcontact’s name at Pills Inc. is Susan Jones. You have received a customer complaint via the company’s social media page. The customer’s complaintis as follows: “Weight Loss Optimizer does not work! I’ve been using this for a week, and I haven’t lostanything! No one should buy this product!”TASK B: Develop an e-mail to motivate and encourage the staff within your company from yourchosen scenarioTo: Aspiring Lifez Team MembersFrom: Chatney Merrill, Product ManagerSubject: Introducing new product launch – Fat Burner PluzHappy Holiday’s Team! Today I come to you and I am excited to tell you about the newest product wewill soon be offering. We will be launching a new weight loss supplement in the next quarter – FatBurner Pluz. There will be a companywide debriefing explaining the details of the roll out of the newproduct. I thought it was important to share the details of the product, along with highlighting theadvantages and disadvantages so that each of you can find out how and where to assist in making thisintroduction a successful. I look so forward to speaking with you all further along with sharing yourthoughts, ideas and opinions to maintain and grow our company success.Advantages: The first of many advantages includes 75% of participants in the most recent researchstudy discovered they have more energy after just one week of using Fat Burner Pluz. The weight lostresults are also just as outstanding. This product not only helps individuals gain energy and lose weight,but also helps to stimulate brain capacity, reduction of appetite, and boost metabolism.The second advantage is that each and every study participant that lost weight has been able tomaintain using exercise in conjunction with the use of Fat Burner Pluz. That alone could be a majormarketing avenue for us in the next quarter and provide us with a competitive advantage in the marketof future dieters.Disadvantages: 1. The 10% of study participants that failed to lose 15+ pounds could cause possiblycreate bad press or increased pressure from our competitors. There is a potential disadvantage as anyclaims that our product has a 10% fail rate, and will therefore be a waste of money for the consumers(or worse). We can mitigate this disadvantage by being well-informed on our front, and understandingthe 2 critical components that make this accusation false. a. It is critical to understand that the 10% ofparticipants who did not lose the requisite weight did in fact lose some weight – they just did not lose asmuch weight as the others. So it cannot be called a “fail rate” when participants did actually loseweight. b. Furthermore, it is unknown whether or not those participants actually followed the program,as they were not under observation 24/7, and we only have their word.There is a good chance that some participants failed to follow the program, and that is the actual causeof the reduced weight loss results. 2. Customer dissatisfaction is always a disadvantage to consider.Obviously, we would love to please 100% of our customer base 100% of the time, and while we strivefor this, that is not always the reality. Below are some ideas that will help us minimize this risk, and Ilook forward to hearing more ideas in future discussion meetings. a. We want complaints to come to usbefore they go public. This will give us the chance to resolve the complaint before it has the chance tobe broadcast to the general public and potentially affect our sales revenues. The product packaging willinclude inserts and details on how to contact us to submit a complaint, but we are also open toadditional ideas on how to get the customer to come to us first – customer surveys, pamphlets for drugstores, signage, etc. b. We need to stay connected and active on all social media/customer interactionplatforms. If we are staying involved and on top of these, then we can maintain a positive presence, findcomplaints quickly, resolve complaints quickly, etc. Ideas for connections include Facebook, Twitter,Instagram, Better Business Bureau, Google+, etc. c. The company’s knowledgebase will be updated toinclude ready-to- go-responses to typical complaints. We will brainstorm ideas together in a futuremeeting, but in order for us to quickly and effectively resolve complaints, we will need to be trained onthe types of complaints that will likely come in, and the best ways to resolve them. This will allow us torespond to complaints quickly without having to reinvent the wheel each time.I am confident that, with all of your help, we can make this launch successful, and I welcome any ideasand feedback that you think will help us with this vision. Again, we will be sending out meeting invites inthe near future, so please keep organize your feedback and/or ideas to present in the meetings, butafter that you are free to email me or come to my office to talk to me about any additional thoughts youhave. I’m excited to work with you all on this new launch!Thank you,Chatney Merrill Product ManagerTASK C: Develop an e-mail to motivate and encourage external stakeholders of your company in yourchosen scenario.To: Aspiring Lifez Team MembersFrom: Chatney Merrill, Product ManagerSubject: Introducing new product launch – Weight Loss Optimizer -Fat Burner PluzTo Our External Stakeholders: Without further delay I am pleased to introduce to you our newestproduct development. The product is called Fat Burner Pluz. It is an all-natural weight lost andmetabolism boosting supplement that allows it’s users to lose and maintain weight loss, build braincapacity and boost metabolism. It is with great pleasure that we present you with this product andhope that you will be as excited as we are about the launch, and wanted to provide some valuableinformation as we move to launch Fat Burner Pluz. Please see the advantages and disadvantages of thepotential new product.The first of many advantages including the number of participants who lost weight and in the study theynot only expressed increased levels of energy, a promotion of clarity, along with the weight loss.Secondly over time the results continued to improve with prolonged use. The longer the participantused our product the optimization of results. The use of exercise and diet along with the product usagealmost doubled the potential weight loss during the study.In regards to disadvantages one of the many could be those with specific allergies, if there is a cocobean, coffee, caffeine allergy associated with the participant the optimal usage of the product cannot bereached. Also those with limited exercise or restricted diet obligations the results were not as drastic inthe weight loss. The energy levels and metabolism seemed to still increase over time with prolonged usebut at a much longer time period than participants who were able to use a combination of diet, exerciseand product usage.a. Complaints/Issues and or negative inquires should be directed to us internally first to allow anopportunity for correction before being released publicly. All new packaging will include verbiage andlinks to the website that will include details on how to contact, who to contact and what to include to usto submit a complaint. I have included a survey monkey at the end of each browsing experience on theblog which will allow us to project any and all customer issues or concerns. Social media presence alsopromotes customer interactions.We are excited about this opportunity, and the potential success we will achieve. Please feel free toreach out to me directly if you should have any concerns.Thank you,Chatney Merrill, Product ManagerTASK D: Develop a company blog entry in support of the new product from your chosen scenario.Fire Up your Metabolism the Right way!Are you looking for an all-natural way to lose weight and keep it off? Have you heard the latest news? Ifyou haven’t yet, don’t freight you soon will! We have a new product that we are soon launching; it is acoco bean, green tea, and guava blended weight loss supplement. Boost that metabolism, Shed the fat,and continue to look and feel fantastic!A few reasons why our customers LOVE us: 1. Triumph. In the history of natural supplementdevelopment our company’s long standing track record makes us a heavy hitter amongst the industry inproviding results2. Natural. Made from all farm raised additives, the compound makeup of the product allows for usewith or without meals and helps to revitalize.3. Ease of use. The use of the product will allow a new dieter to begin without any planning or drasticchanges.Losing weight in a safe, effective manner and then keeping it off is definitely a win in our book, which iswhy we’re so thrilled to offer this new product.Follow us on Twitter & Instagram at @FatBurnerPluz to receive updates and learn more about theproduct, and look for new products coming near you soon!TASK E: Develop a persuasive letter to the business partner in your chosen scenario in which your goalis to overcome your business partner’s objections to a shorter manufacturing lead time.Aspiring 456 E. Center St., Cityville, GA 44006Natures Plus dba Pills Inc. 6511 N. Main St. Charlotte City, NC 24114RE: Shorter Manufacturing Lead TimeDear Susan JonesPer our conversation in regards to developing a shorter manufacturing lead time, and I wanted to sharemy thoughts with you because I have been going over every possibility, and I believe that a shortermanufacturing lead time is still the best solution.As you know, we have recently acquired by Zippy Corp. The sole reason for this acquisition was due toWeight Loss Optimizer pill the Fat Burner Pluz. The level of success that has been achieved which leadsto a win for all parties during this acquisition. Our demands over all have increased and we aredepending on you to assist us in streamlining the growth and meeting the demands of our customers.In order to stay on track with future projections and anticipated sales demands we believe thatdecreasing production time using the Kaizen method limiting the use of Just in Time production wouldkeep us ahead of the curve in the manufacturing of the necessary products.It would be ideal to meet and negotiate what methods would work best for Pills Inc. that should beinvolved in the discussion. Please let me know a better day and time that will work with all partiesinvolved and when we can meet.Kind Regards, Chatney Merrill Product ManagerTASK F: Develop a response to the customer from your chosen scenario who posted a complaint aboutthe product to the company’s social media page.”Weight Loss Optimizer does not work! I’ve been using this for a week, and I haven’t lost anything! Noone should by this product!” – Amber H”Amber H – We deeply regret your lack of satisfaction with our newest product. It is our goal to ensureyour success with Weight Loss Optimizer. Our company holds our customers concerns in high regard andwe take the optimization of each experience very seriously. While using the Weight Loss Optimizer FatBurner Pluz pill it is suggested that introduction of cleaner diet and more water would promote anddevelop the achieved results. To ensure we promote your success I would like to keep fluid conversationwith you throughout your journey. The program has produced life changing results and I would toensure your results will also mirror many others. However in promotion of safe and healthy weight lossthe tracking and monitoring over time would allow a more accurate depiction of the programs strengthsand weakness. I would be more than happy to speak to you directly if you could send me a message [email protected], Let us commit to work together to ensure your future success.Thank you!” – ABC Corp Customer ServiceTASK G: Evaluate the effectiveness of the positive and negative communication strategies usedthroughout your communication portfolio for both internal and external stakeholders.A direct communication method was utilized in Tasks B and C to communicate positive messages to theemployees and external stakeholders. The ability to create buy in amongst employees/ team membersand stakeholders was desired outcome. In order to promote success as a company, creating a positivebuzz was imperative. To advertise and market to a repeat audience and having an industry stamp byalready being the producer of other successful weight-loss- related products using a direct strategyproviding information, instructions, and engagement creates a circle of trust and company buy in whichwill relate to your audience and also create a positive experience for customers.Task D was use of clear and direct strategy to communicate positive messaging. The intended audiencewould include a repeat customer base, potential new customers, stakeholders, and investors. The blogis an effective way to communicate market, advertise and promote.Task E is simply effective communication that happens to include some persuasion. Persuasion has theability to be conveyed in a negative light if not used properly. In any transition it is important to makesure all parties know their place and how important their contribution is to construction of anagreement.Task F, is the customer complaint response it should always be positive. The situation already created apossibility to trigger negative communication so the verbiage used to promote positivity for thecustomer is important in development of the end result. Using a direct or indirect method depends onthe initial communication with the customer and redirecting the potential.TASK H: Evaluate the effectiveness of the different communication modalities (e.g., e-mail, blogs,social media, and formal letters) used throughout your communication portfolio for both internal andexternal stakeholders.The use of an email to team members to introduce the new product is somewhat effective. This methodlacks the personal aspect of communication within an organization. The team members buy in to newproducts and even acquisitions depend on the introduction. If email monitoring practices within acompany are subpar this leaves the potential for information gaps. From my personal experienceinformation that was important and essential was usually introduced by more than one method. Lunchand learns allowing interaction between the distributing party and the team members, team meet upsduring the day to have round table discussions in smaller settings and also town hall meetings whichinvolved the entire company and created a trust circle with the distributor and the receiver. All effectiveways to ensure cohesiveness and cooperation amongst organization to ensure everyone knows theirrole and are on board to achieve success.The email provided to stakeholders could possibly be effective. Depending upon the interaction ofthose stakeholders a formal letter, memo, or email may have all served as proper notification to themembers of a large public company. However in a smaller company where the stakeholders may also beemployees of the company or investors who work within the industry a brief memo or companymeeting will allow interactive discussions, town hall forums or even a sponsored lunch a learn.Communication to all parties is something that essential in transitional periods of growth.The company blog is effective at developing company culture creating or maintaining buzz anddistributing of necessary information to not only the public but to stockholders, stakeholders,employees and possible future investors. An inexpensive yet effective marketing method would be aninteractive blog. It allows the dissemination of new products, news, and offers an alternate layer ofcommunication and general information involving the company.The formal letter to the business partner is effective. Considering my background an email would bemore appropriate. The use of a formal letter in such a tech concentrated environment shows a level ofseriousness but also a level of negligence. If the POC (Point of Contact) is no longer with the company orhappens to work remotely from another state or even country or contractually a physical letter couldcreate a delay in providing substantial information.The responses to customer complaints are effective if conveyed with empathy. Word of mouth has theability to make or break a brand and when customers use social media or verbal/written platforms toexpress complaints can take a life of their own if not handled adequately. When constructing anappropriate response to a customer making sure their concerns are being heard and understood showshow much the company cares, and it creates relations by taking the time to respond individually.

For think the root is due to

For many people, media outlets can be a key sources of
information and is a powerful way in which animals are represented in our
society and mirrors our values. The news coverage in general of farmed animals reinforces
the notion that animals are seen as bodies not beings.  

When I think about how our society values one animal over
another, I think the root is due to human exceptionalism and speciesism. There
are social, political and environmental implications when we ignore who animals
are and think of ourselves as above and better than them. Singer uses the word speciesism
to describe giving preference to our own species over another, in the absence
of morally relevant differences. The article does briefly question the farmed
animal welfare, however it doesn’t discuss whether it is right for us to breed,
use, kill and eat them in the first place, and fails to describe the animals as
inherently valuable individuals.

The role of language in media is really important as it
reinforces the power relationship between humans and animals and language
itself provides us with a way of structuring our experience of ourselves and
the world. For one, language in our world is a way in which reflects the
prejudices of its users and in this cause results in the demean of animals as
it portrays this idea that animals are at our disposal. For example, in this article,
using the words such as livestock and meat instead of cows, chickens and pigs,
is a way to reinforce the human-animal divide in which that farm animals are
bodies not beings, consequently distorting our view of animals and reality. Language
also introduces this element of speciesism in the way that, would this language
be used for other animals that tend to be valued higher in our society?

In New York Times, Rethinking
the Meat-Guzzler, the article emphasizes the negative consequences humans
and the environment face at the hands of today’s meat farming, however, it
makes no similar critique of what it might be like for the cows and pigs who
live in overcrowded and foul conditions and are raised purely for the
production and consumption of meat – their
bodies. “These assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of
energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and
require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency
that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world’s tropical rain forests”1.
 The article clearly presents the animals
as a commodity and fails to acknowledge their emotional perspectives. This is
evident as the article relates the value of meat to oil, “The two commodities
share a great deal”1. Anthropocentric news frames like this and
others miss an opportunity to balance agriculture stories with an animal
welfare or rights perspective. The impact of this view manifests how we view
other animals in relation to ourselves and greatly influences how we treat them,
for example how we let factory farms exists in the first place mirrors our
societies values and once again, fails to acknowledge animals having emotions.

Animals play many roles in human society, including those
of companion, entertainer, food item, and commodity. There are many discourses
and ideologies that influence how animals are socially constructed. For
example, how animals are represented in the news is a really powerful way our
society portrays animals and highly influences how they are treated by human
society. In this reflection I will focus on how news about farm animals – Livestock – generally, reinforces the human-animal
divide where farm animals are seen as bodies not beings. Although it’s not
always the case, news media often objectify nonhuman animals freely through commodification,
failure to acknowledge their emotional perspectives and failure to describe
them as inherently valuable individuals.

Module not a motivational theory; it just

Module 37: Motivational Concepts

Motivation- something that
inspires or makes someone do something that needs to be done.

Instincts and Evolutionary

    ~ Test Tip: this
is part of the biological aspect.

Instinct- a behavior, learned or
just known, that makes you feel or think a certain way.

Drives and Motives

    ~Test Tip:
homeostasis is not a motivational theory; it just applies to some of the

Drive-Reduction Theory- need è drive. A need to do something, there is a motive to
satisfy a need.

Homeostasis- being able to be
stable or balanced relating to body chemistry.

Yerkes-Dodson law- routine
increases with any type of arousal that decreases.

A Hierarchy of Motives

Hierarchy of needs- the pyramid
of human needs (Maslow) … levels of needs for activeness.

Abraham Maslow: known
as a theory of psychological
health involved with fulfilling human needs.


Module 38: Hunger Motivation

Body Chemistry and the Brain

Glucose- the sugar in our body that
provides energy through blood.

Set Point- the set weight of a
person. Causes increase in hunger etc based on reaction to body weight

Basal Metabolic Rate- resting rate
of energy flow.


Module 39: Sexual Motivation

The Sexual Response

Sexual Response Cycle- the four





Refractory Period- the period of
time when a male cannot get another orgasm

Sexual Dysfunctions and

Sexual Dysfunctions- an issue
that weakens functions

Hormones and Sexual Behavior

Estrogen- the female hormone that
is released, caused by sex characteristics

Testosterone- male sex hormone
that is caused by sex characteristics

    ~Test Tip: biological
processes help with controlling behavior, why sex hormones don’t have any
control over behaviors.





Module 40: Social Motivation: Affiliation

The Pain of Being Shut Out

Ostracism- excluding someone or
something on a social level.

Cyber ostracism- when you aren’t
liked by someone so they un-friend you on their social media accounts. You also
may not have a lot of followers.

Connecting and Social Media

    ~Test Tip: Social
media is easy and doesn’t work like psychological processes principles.

Phones are used for social media a
lot because people check their accounts so often (are addicted) and social
media is wild. Complex.


Module 41: Theories and Physiology of

Cognition and Emotion

Emotions- emotions are a big
deal. Behavior can be driven from emotions. A mix of three things-
physiological arousal, expressive behavior, conscious experience.

James-Lange Theory- based on
consciousness experiences of physiological and responses to emotion.

Cannon-Bard Theory- triggers
physiological responses of emotions

Two-Factor Theory- when wanting
to experience an emotion you have to be able to be physically and cognitively

Embodied Emotion


Module 42: Expressed Emotion

The Effects of Facial

Facial Feedback Effect- an
expression corresponding with emotions triggering ones face

Health Psychology- behavioral
medicine regarding health issues


Module 43: Stress and Health

Stress: Some Basic Concepts

Stress- when something such as an event or person causes
you something other than your normal emotions

The Stress Response System

General Adaption Syndrome- your body’s response to the
three stages of stress… alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

Tend-and-befriend response- when someone is stressed and
other people trying helping calm them down and get things accomplished.


Module 44: Stress
and Illness

Illnesses- Illnesses due to stress

the study of endocrine, neural, and psychological and how they work together
affecting the immune system

cells in the immune system that is white blood

    ~two types


Dear determined and slowly ceased to be

Dear Mr. President,


            I’m writing
you this letter to inform you and express my stance on to why a national
holiday should be given to Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, or commonly known as Eleanor

Facing oppression at such a young age after losing both her
parents, young Eleanor was determined and slowly ceased to be shy but rather
out going. She then later married Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd
president of the united states. Despite the society role given to women at the
time, Eleanor became a very active political member during World War one, where
she began to work for the American Red Cross. After FDR suffered a polio attack
before his presidency, His wife helped and supported him through his political
career. Being the first lady, she did not stay hidden in the background, she
defied the unknown and became involved more politically. She gave press
conferences, spoke out for human rights, as well as the League of Women Voters.
With all this outstanding ­­­involvement, she also focused on helping the less
fortunate, supporting U.S troops and stood against racial discrimination, she
even had her own newspaper column, entitled “My Day”. For being a woman she
definitely went above and beyond societal roles established during that time


            Having an
active role, such as she had caused for a mix of opinions to stir. Many
criticized her and viewed it to be completely wrong that she was so actively
involved in politics and the publics issues. While, some felt a negative
connotation towards her, many others admired her astonishing commitment and
accomplishments. After the death of her husband, she did not intend to continue
any political/ public involvement. President Harry Truman appointed her as a
delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, and was reappointed by John F.
Kennedy. In later years, she become appointed to the National Advisory
Committee of the peace corps as well as Chair of the Presidents commission on
the status of women.


Roosevelt was one of the most determined and outspoken women to be a first
lady, as well as politically involved as she was during the time. Being a
leader of the women’s movement, she supported and sought for equal rights to be
given to women. “Eleanor believed women had special qualities that made them
peacemakers, conferees and mothers, but she also believed these qualities made
them fine politicians, reformers, advocates and professionals.” Her dedication
and awareness soon lead to the establishment of the first presidential
commission on the status of women. Her work not only changed the legislation,
but also was a major help towards women’s rights.


            We as young
women should be more aware of the struggle historically made for us to be given
such rights. Giving a holiday to Eleanor is more than necessary, for my life as
well as every other woman would not be the same without the sacrifices and
hardships she endured.

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I'm Eleanor!

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